BIO220H1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 55 pages long!)

226 views55 pages
28 Mar 2018
School
Department
Course
Professor

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

UTSG
BIO220H1
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 55 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 55 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
BIO220 Lecture 1:
Genomes:
Birds, butterflies and moths have Z and W chromosomes. Males are the heterogametic sexing humans.
In birds, females are the heterogametic sex. Low recombination is low crossing over in gametes. High
recombination is high crossing over in gametes and this has a big effect on the chromsomes. If theres a
region of high recombination, the genes can be inherited somewhat independely because the genes can
dissociate from its neighbor on a chromosome.
Observations:
Females stay in their netal groups but once males become adolescents they are kicked out of the
groups.
Question:
2nd hypothesis is that inbreed offspring could be just as good as outbred offspring.
Possible:
On the left theres no difference. When theres inbreeding, its below the axis. If they avoid inbreeding,
mles will mate with females they are not related to. 1st in the null hypothesis.
Results:
In family groups, males direct their attention towards non-relatives. Even in the 2nd graph male
elephants have evolved to direct their attention away from their relatives. These results even hold for
paternal kin. Elephants thus can avoid mating with their relatives. Thus inbreeding depression is
relatively strong.
Micro:
They got samples from hair and they tried to cluster the genetic data to see which groups are more
closely related. They found that theres a red start group and a blue star group. The red are more related
to red than blue and vice versa and this corresponded to the habitat differences. Thus this suggests that
there is genetic differences between them. They used FST to check this and the valurranges from 0 to 1.
1 means complete genetic difference between the 2 population, 0 means no genetic difference. Based
on mitochondrial DNA, they dound a value of 0.28. This is a significant value. When they did the same
calculation using autosomes, they got a smaller value. This means that our genomes are mosaics. One
section of the genome is accumulating genetic differences in the mitochondrial genome, and theres very
little difference in the autosomes and Y chromosome.
Caribou:
The northern and southern limits of the animals match up with the genetic differences.
Migrations x2:
Mitochondrial DNA stricyl comes from the mother. There will be large genetic differences happening in
the mito genome because theres no gene flow between the northern and southern wolves. Theres no
male contribution in the mitochondrial genome. Theres no gene flow in the mitochondrial genome
between northern and wouthern wolves.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 55 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Migrations:
A male southern wolf mating with a northern female. The females move back and give birth. The
northern female mated with a southern male. The offspring will have half of their offspring from a
southern male and all the sons will have a Y chromosome from a southern male. If we measure gene
flow in the Y chromosome of the autosomes, there will be lots of gene flow between the northern and
southern wolves. If theres lots of gene flow, there wont be a lot of genetic differences between
northern and southern wolves.
Genetic:
Based on the dashed line, as geographic distance increases, genetic distance also increases. In this
sample of humans, the genetic data suggests higher rates of genetic distance in females than in males.
It’s the feales that ove ore to the locatio of their ates.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 55 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class