Lecture 23.doc

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12 Apr 2012
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Lecture 23: Climate Effects on Organisms, Phenology, &
Interactions
Slide 1
We should see animal ranges to shift; match between organisms ranges of
tolerance will be preserved
If it gets too hot, we expect migrations toward cold places
Latitudinal --> toward poles; up the side of the mountains
We're seeing both of these shifts (altitudinal and latitudinal)
Ecological forests will favour migration
Phenological changes flowering time will also change with climate
Slide 2
Use a climate model to see how those ecological conditions i.e. temperature
values are going to shift in the future so you can then draw the conditions that
are favorable to the species in a future climate and that'll tell you where the new
range is
Slide 3
IPCC rise --> 4-5 degrees over 100 years
PETM --> 6 degrees over 20,000 years
Unclear whether the change is too fast for species to migrate or adapt --> more
extinctions perhaps
Slide 4
Longest migration of any North American mammals
Summer --> high elevation; Winter --> lower elevation
Animals shift if their climate changes (know from PETM)
- What has happened with the modern landscape that makes it easier or harder
for them to adjust to a change in climate by migration?
oNow that we have fences, it's much harder to move across that landscape;
their ability to solve a problem by moving to a different climate by
migration is limited by the type of landscape
Slide 8
They’re bad at jumping and get caught and killed because of the barbed wire
Now there are safer fences, no barbs on the lower levels; pronghorn-safe fences
placed by farmers but they still have difficulty to get through
Slide 9
This is not due to climate change but this show how an animal can be set back
horribly due to a change in landscape configuration
One of the most abundant birds before in NA at the time of European settlement
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