BIO271 - Respiration Section.docx

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12 Apr 2012
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Department
Course
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Respiration
- exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the external environment and the mitochondria
- Mitochondrial Respiration: production of ATP through oxidation of carbs, AAs, or fatty acids; O2 consumed, CO2 produced
- External Respiration: gas exchange at the lungs
- Internal Respiration: gas exchange at tissues
Organism
Method
Enters
Exits
Blood Flow
Air Flow
Sponge
flagella
ostia
osculum
Direct diffusion
into cells
unidirectional
Cnidarians
Muscle contractions
mouth
mouth
Direct diffusion
into cells
tidal
Snails and Clams
(Molluscs)
cillia
Under shell
Under shell
countercurrent
tidal
Cephalopods
(squid)
Muscle contraction
countercurrent
tidal
Small Crustaceans
(barnacles)
diffusion
Large Crustaceans
Gill bailer (negative pressure in
branchial chamber sucks water
across gills)
Under legs
mouth
unidirectional
Lamprey Non-feeding
Muscular pump
mouth
Gill opening
countercurrent
unidirectional
Lamprey Feeding
Muscular pump
Gill opening
Gill opening
countercurrent
tidal
Hagfish
Muscular pump (velum)
mouth
Gill opening
countercurrent
unidirectional
Elasmobranches
- expand buccal cavity
- Water enters buccal cavity
- mouth and spiracles close
- buccal cavity contracts forcing water past
gills and out
Mouth and
spiracles
Gill slits
unidirectional
Teleost Fish
- mouth open, opercular valve closed,
buccal cavity expands
- water enters
- buccal floor raises and opperculem
mouth
Opercular slit
countercurrent
unidirectional
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expands
- water enters oppercular cavity
- opercular valve opens and opercular
cavity compresses
- water leaves
(RAM VENTILATION)
Insects
Diffusion through Trachea (ends
filled with hemolymph)
- expansion of trachea or abdomen
and thorax (ram ventilation)
Anterior
spiracles
Abdominal
spiracles
Unidirectional or
tidal
Insects (discontinuous
gas exchange)
1) spiracles closed, O2 used and CO2
converted to HCO3-
2) spiracles flutter, air enters trachea
3) pressure in trachea increases,
spiracles open and CO2 released
spiracle
spiracle
tidal
Air breathing fish
1) mouth open, buccal cavity
expands, air enters buccal cavity
2) mouth closes, buccal cavity
compresses, air travels to anterior
chamber
3) ant. chamber closes, post.
chamber contracts, air exits
operculum
4) ant. chamber opens, air flows into
post. chamber, gas exchange
Mouth
operculum
unidirectional
Birds
2 cycles of inhalation and exhalation
posterior air sac lungs anterior
air sacs out trachea
mouth
mouth
crosscurrent
unidirectional
- unicellular organism generally rely on diffusion
- larger organisms rely on bulk flow AND diffusion
o ventilation moving air over a respiratory surface
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