Lecture 26 Metabolism and Bioenergetics.docx

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Michael Baker

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BCH210H © Lisa| Page 112 Lecture 26: Metabolism and Bioenergetics  anabolism—rxns that synthesize or make more complex molecules  building up of proteins from 20 AAs (thousands of diff proteins depending on seq)  makes things that are more complex  divergent—20 AAs to thousands of proteins  NRG input required  ex. pyruvate (3C) to glucose, glucose to branched glycogen, pyruvate to acetyl coA, acetyl coA to fatty acids  catabolism—takes something bigger and makes it smaller  ex. glycogen to glucose phosphate  ex. proteins to AA  ex. nucleic acids to nucleotides  ex. fats to FFA  convergent—from thousands of proteins broken down to 20 AAs (smaller # of diff types)  NRG released  ex. glycolysis—glucose to 2C and 3C parts through  ex. β-oxidation—fatty acids to acetyl coA with release of NRG  ex. glycogenolysis—breakdown of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate Metabolism  provides NRG  catabolism and anabolism of many molecules during exercise/fasting and eating  conversion of one molecule to another ex. glucose (CHO) to fat  NRG released during catabolism can be used to drive anabolic pathways  catabolic paths fuel anabolic paths  usually requires many enzymes that work in sequence  complete change is a result of steps of changes with each step with an enzyme  pathway  product of one enzyme serves as substrate of next enzyme  linear pathway  there are problems  if there is a block in the pathway, you can’t get past it  ex. glycolysis  pathway can be made more efficient if there is an enzyme with multiple active sites built-in  or diff subunits  complex enzyme—separate enzymes held together covalently  enzyme cycle—last cycle regenerates the first substrate  imp components are the inputs and products put into and going out of the cycle  ex. Kreb’s Cycle Bioenergetics  production of NRG and use of NRG  ATP is the principal carrier of NRG in cells  NRG is stored as ATP  ATP synthesis allows the conservation of NRG released in catabolism to be used in anabolic rxns  ATP is the intermediate shuttling bw catabolism and anabolism  ATP—adenosine triphosphate BCH210H © Lisa| Page 212  triphosphate—3 phosphates in a row  *trisphosphate—3 phosphate each on a diff C  ester link is the least NRGetic  phosphoanhydride bonds are very NRGetic  release of a lot of NRG if broken which an support anabolic rxns or active transport or mechanical NRG (muscle contraction)  ATP has 4 negative charges  becomes a more stable molecule as phosphates are released—gets rid of negative charge  negative charges can repel each other  as phosphates are released, resonance structures are produced which allow a low
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