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BCH210H1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 88 pages long!)


Department
Biochemistry
Course Code
BCH210H1
Professor
Reinhart Reithmeier
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
BCH210H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 1 Elements of
Protein Structure
Red Blood Cell
Sickle Cell Anemia
(Hb S)
Protein
Water
Molecules of Life
Protein: Hemoglobin
- Tetramer (2α & 2β subunits)
- Heme (binds the iron, which binds oxygen) prosthetic group
- Globin (the protein)
Prosthetic group: a non-protein group, combined with or forming a protein
- Glu6Val (Meaning: Glutamate in the 6th Amino Acid position- switched
to Valine)
- Valine substitution causes long polymers to form, thus changes the shape
of Hemoglobin
- Glutamate (hydrophilic) Valine (hydrophobic)
o Changes the protein interaction changes folding & 3D
structure
Proteins: Polymers of Amino Acids linked by Peptide Bonds
- Fold from linear Amino Acids to 3D structure
o Specificity of Amino Acids dictate folding
o Mutation in DNA different Amino Acids Changes the
protein functionality *And can be inherited*
- Are agents of biological function (ex. Enzymes)
The Most Important Molecule!!!
- Function of water: solvent and a reactant
- Polar
- Molecules fold into their 3D structures IN WATER
o Water is responsible for molecular structure
1. Proteins
a. Hemoglobin, enzymes
2. DNA, RNA
a. genes, mRNA, tRNA
3. Lipids
a. Fats, cholesterol, hormones
4. Sugars
a. Energy = ATP
5. Small Molecules
a. Metabolites, vitamins
6. Ions
a. K+, Na+, Ca2+, Cl-
7. Water
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Forces of Protein
Folding
Hydrophobic Effect
Energy
ATP Production
Pathway
I. Hydrophobic Effect
II. Ionic Interactions (opposite charges attracting, similar repelling)
III. Hydrogen bonds **IMPORTANT**
a. Results in protein stability
IV. Van der Waals interactions
a. Important in folding
- Non-polar interiors
o Very little water inside the proteinpacked tightly like
crystalline structure
- Hydrophilic AA’s interact with solvent on protein surface (aka WATER)
- Ultimate source of energy = the SUN
- Body uses 2 forms: ATP & NADPH
ATP NADPH
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