BCH210 2014 Midterm Notes.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Stavroula Andreopoulos

Lecture 1 Introduction Water Noncovalent InteractionsH O C N make up 99 of atoms in the human body ester and ether linkages found in fatty acids and lipidsphosphate ester and phosphoanhydride bonds found in nucleotidesChemical Structures1 dalton1 AMU Da 12 CarbonC12 daltonsAdding together this amino acid will have 110 daltonsstarchpoly glucoseglucose monomers joined together to make a macromoleculemonomers own propertiesdifferent from its macromoleculeStructure of a Dipeptidetwo amino acids dipeptidesremoval of a water molecule makes a amide linkage and a molecule with an amino end and carboxyl end Structure of Polysaccharidesan 14glycosidic linkage oxygen is above the plane of the sugarloss of watercondensation reactionwe store glucose residues by glycogenglycogen has a 16glycosidic linkage Structure of Proteinsproteins can be enzymes support structures transporterstheir function will depend on its 3D structuredifferences in function may be because of the extrasheetread from N to C terminalStructure of Nucleotidesnucleotide 5 carbon sugar ribose has extra OH ribose on the C2a heterocyclic N baseat least one phosphate groupStructure of NucleotidesN bases of nucleotides belong to 2 families Only RNA has uracilOnly DNA has thymineStructure of Adenosine Triphosphate ATP Structure of Nucleotidesnucleic acids are polymers of nucleotidesjoining with terminal phosphateformation of phosphodiester bondStructure of a DinucleotideStructure of DNAthe fidelity of selfreplication resides ultimately in the chemical nature of DNAthe DNA double helix 2 complementary polynucleotide chains running in opposite directions can pair through hydrogen bonding between their nitrogen basestheir complementary nucleotide sequences give rise to structure complementarityDNARNAproteins Structure of Water68 of the oxygens occupy the 4 sp3 hybrid orbitals Space Filling Model of Waterthere is an uneven charge distribution nd there is acharge from hydrogen and a 2charge from oxygen there is a partial negative charge on the oxygen and a partial positive charge on the hydrogenProperties of Waterwater has unusual properties o bent structure makes it polar o nontetrahedral bond angles o Hbond donor and acceptor o Potential to form 4 HBondswater moleculePolaritydepends on dipolegeometry of compoundthere are 2 dipoles associated with waternet dipolenegative on the oxygen position on the hydrogens o because of this fixed shapewater is polarammonia is polarpyramidal geometryo will dissolve into waterlike dissolves like Covalent Bondscovalent bond formation by electron pair sharing between H C N OHydrogen Bondsdue to its polar nature water molecules attract one another instantaneous dipoleinduced dipole forceHbonds are weaker than covalent bonds and almost 2X the lengthDerivative of electrostatic interactionStabilizing attractive interaction between a proton often part of a polarisable bond such as NH OH or SH and an electrondonating species often COA non covalent bond between an electronegative atomhydrogen atom BOUND to another electronegative atomFundamental stabilizing force of protein secondary structures helix sheetContributing energy of stabilization each Hbond36 kcalBetween two atoms that are slightly positive and slightly negative o Very subtle of a electrostatic interactionProperties of WaterCovalent bonds
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