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Some Notes for Exam Review

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DNA was proved to be genetic material with bacteria that had smooth and rough coloniesSmooth colonies lethal roughnon lethalDNA nucleic acid has nitrogenous base joined to pentose sugar ring rings attached by phosphatesPurineGA double ring pyrimidines C TSingle ring purines must bind with pyrimidinesHow did they find out DNA was double strandedWatson and Crick had 3 observationsDNA is a polypeptide made of phosphate groups sugar and basesXray diffraction data of DNA crystals showed that DNA was long and skinny had two parts that were parallelBecause of double stranded DNA Purine GA and Pyrimidines C T A basepairs with T 2 H bondstherefore easier to breakC basepairs with G 3H bondsBases are planar and perpendicular to the axis of the helix stackedThere are 10 basepairs per DNA turn One strand of DNA dictates the sequence on the other strandRIGHT HANDED double helix with polarity because its anti parallelG0G1MS phase of cellDNA REPLICATION MAIN POINTSBasePairing Enables DNA ReplicationDNA Synthesis Begins at Replication OriginsNew DNA Synthesis Occurs at Replication ForksThe Replication Fork Is AsymmetricalDNA Polymerase Is SelfcorrectingShort Lengths of RNA Act as Primers for DNA SynthesisProteins at a Replication Fork Cooperate to Form a Replication MachineTelomerase Replicates the Ends of Eukaryotic ChromosomesDNA synthesis is SEMICONSERVATIVE meaning that half of the new strand is actually old DNANeed to have replication of originidentify it and then separate the two DNA strands for replication to occurThe origin of replication is bound by a complex of proteins termed the origin recognition complex which recruit additional proteins to designate the start site of replication and allow replication to occurBacteria have circular genomesTherefore only one origin of replicationEukaryotes have many origins of replication because linear chromosomestimebecause have to replicate the DNA in less than 8 hoursDNA is read 35DNA is synthesized 53 ALWAYSLagging strand is made discontinuously and produces Okazaki fragments leading strand is made continuouslySteps of DNA replication 1 the DNA strands are denatured unwound at origin of replications generally AT rich by enzymes that unwind the DNA called helicases2binding proteins keep the DNA in a single stranded form do not cover bases so replication can occur
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