Lecture 15: Variation
1. Differentiate between genotype, phenotype and genome.
2. What are some places where genetic variation can come from? (3/4)
3. What is independent assortment and recombination?
4. What is a homeotic mutation? Describe Barbara McClintock‟s discovery of transposons. How could a
mutation in flower petal colour be selected against or be beneficial? When would polymorphism result?
When will mutations result in speciation? What are some characteristics of mutations? (3/4) Describe
possible mutations. (3/4) What did Kimura discover about mutations?
5. What does inbreeding cause more death? (2) What is blending inheritance? What were Mendel‟s
experiments‟ main conclusions? (4)
6. Differentiate between discrete and continuous traits. (3) Which involves Mendelian genetics? Quantitative
inheritance? What is genetic polymorphism? What is the 5% cutoff? What is the relationship between gene
number and phenotypic distribution?
7. What is Fisher‟s Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection?
Lecture 16: Maintenance and Measurement of Genetic Variation
1. What did Fisher, Haldane, and Wright do? (2)
2. Differentiate between polymorphism and heterozygosity.
3. Describe 4 processes that affect patterns of genetic diversity and how they affect it. Describe mutation-
selection balance, different selective forces (what is heterozygote advantage?), and variation selectively
4. Describe early evidence of the existence of genetic variation? What type of selection is this?
5. Describe the selection response for bristle number in fruit flies. (3) What was found in the artificial
selection for large and small flowers in wild monkey flowers? What is a setback of artificial selection
experiments on quantitative traits?
6. Differentiate between classical and balance schools of thought (4). How did Lewontin‟s Allozyme Gel
Electrophoresis surveys support one of the conflicting schools of thought? How would monomorphic genes
and polymorphic genes show up in a gel? What do thicker bands indicate?
7. What are the advantages of studies in enzyme polymorphism? (3/5)
8. Describe the contrasting patterns of genetic diversity in generalist vs. specialist (2) barnyard grasses.
9. What is true about the genetic diversity of rare species? How might this cause its rarity?
10. What are SNPs? What is its use? What was found in the domestication of maize from its progenitor teosinte
in relation to SNPs? What is meant by “There is no single „human genome‟”
1. Describe the 3 reproductive modes. (2 each)
2. Describe some costs of sex? (3/6) Describe transmission bias as it applies to asexuality. What is the short-
term and long-term benefit of sexual reproduction? Differentiate in the rates that the favourable
combinations of mutations are brought together in asexual and sexual organisms. What was found in the
heterogeneity of habitats and propensity for sex? How do animals and plants differ in asexuality? Where
would asexual species be found in a phylogeny? Why? Descrbe the Bdelloid rotifers exception.
3. What does it mean that inbreeding and outbreeding are on a continuum? What does this mean in terms of
heterozygosity? What are the genetic consequences of inbreeding? (4) What happens to alleles in
inbreeding? What is inbreeding depression? In gel electrophoresis, what would be the conclusion if a
population shows only heterozygosity for a gene? Only homozygotes? Explain how does population size
affect heterozygosity? Explain what happens when you inbreed an organism that is normally outcrossed?
4. How does a plant stop itself from being inbred? How does sexual selection result in gender dimorphism?
What is Baker‟s Law? Why are Jamaican and Cuban populations largely selfing? Why doesn‟t everything
self? Lecture 18
1. What is the Fisher-Wright debate? Define population. Migration. Gene flow. Describe the effects of
selection, gene flow, and genetic drift on a species living in 2 different environments.
2. Why is gene flow difficult to measure? What is potential vs actual gene flow? Gamete vs. individual? How
can neutral genetic markers be used to measure gene flow? How can gene flow be measured between
population fixed for alternative alleles? Why is gene flow a concern for GM crops? How do we measure
gene flow with crops (as in crop and weed sunflowers)? What would cause a high risk of transgenes
escaping from crop to wild population via. gene flow? (3) How may gene flow NOT be random?
3. Describe the 3 stochastic processes resulting in a loss of diversity.
4. What is tristyly? How is it maintained? Describe the evolution of selfing from outcrossing in water
hyacinths. What is disassortative mating? What is epistasis? How is it different from recessive and
1. How did Darwin predict the existence of a moth with an exceptionally long proboscis?
2. What is fitness? Selective advantage? Adaptation? Differentiate between artificial and natural selection (2).
Describe stabilizing, directional, and disruptive selection; types of natural selection on quantitative traits.
Provide an example for each.
3. Describe the evolution of resistance to herbicides, insecticides, poisons, etc. Describe the evolution by
pollution of moths. What did Kettlewell do with moths? What are some criticism of his experiments? (3/5)
Describe what happened following the introduction of the Clean Air Act in the UK. (2). How is the similar
polymorphism seen in mice? Describe the evolution by pollution of grasses. (3) Why don‟t tolerance genes
spread in the pastures around the mine?
4. Describe Lenski‟s experimental evolution experiments with E. coli. (2 findings/4). What happens when a
novel, beneficial mutation develops?
Lecture 20: Species, speciation & Hybridization
1. What is the species problem? Describe taxonomic/morphological and biological species concepts. What is
the problem with each? Differentiate between the 2 main modes of speciation.
2. Describe some stages where Reproductive Isolation can occur. (3/5). Describe premating isolating
mechanisms. (2) Describe premating isolation in apple maggot flies. What is an argument that this is NOT
an example of sympatric speciation? Describe premating isolation in monkey flower. (2)
3. Describe postmating reproductive isolating mechanisms. What is intrinsic postmating isolation? Give an
example. What is the relationship between genetic distance and postmating isolation? What is extrinsic
postzygotic isolation? Give an example.
4. What is ecological speciation? Describe Schluter‟s study on the adaptation to freshwater in 3-spined
stickleback. What is adaptive radiation? What are the 4 features that identify an adaptive radiation?
Describe 3 causes adaptive radiation.
5. What is hybridization? How does it vary in different groups of organisms? How is it related to polyploidy?
What is polyploidy? Differentiate between autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy. How common is polyploidy
in plants? Animals? Explain what mode of speciation this is? What is the advantage of alloploidy? Describe
the classic example of the origin of new Senecio species in the UK
Lecture 21: Phylogenetics and Macroevolution
1. What did Linnaeus contribute to taxonomy? What is the purpose of biological classification? (3) What is a
taxon? Differentiate between taxonomy and systematics. Differentiate between the phonetics and cladistics,
the 2 schools of taxonomy? Which school did Hennig initiate?
2. What was the only figure in the Darwin‟s Origin? Describe the locations of taxa, brances, internodes, and
nodes on a phylogenetic tree. What is the outgroup and ingroup? What are monophyletic and non-
monophyletic groups? How would these classifications appear on a tree? Which classifications are
preferred? How can ancestral traits be identified? What are derived traits?
3. Differentiate between homology and homoplasy. What would human and fish skeletons fall under? What is
convergent evolution? Explain the example of Cactus, Spurge, and Milkweed families (2). What is the
similarity in cichlid fish of African Great lakes indicative of? 4. How and why is molecular biology relevant to phylogeny reconstruction? What are key innovations?(2)
How do they appear on phylogenetic trees? What are clades? What was observed with the origin of the
nectar spur? What are the implications with this key innovation? What was seen in the directionality of the
radiation? (2) How is this associated with speciation?
5. Describe antagonistic coevolution in water striders. What is Bateman‟s Principle? How does it apply to
water striders? How can phylogenies test a hypothesis of sexual conflict?
Lecture 22: Contemporary evolution and invasive species
1. What has happened with introductions of cane toad, nile perch, and Asian carp? What are biological
invasions? Are they always harmful? What is an alien species? What are some negative environmental
consequences of biological invasions? (3/4) Are certain ecosystems more susceptible to invasions than
2. What is enemy release hypothesis? Describe Wolfe‟s study that demonstrates this. How are disturbance and
invasion related? Give an example. What are some ocommon attributes of successful invasive species (4/5)?
Describe the selection of barnyard grass plants that mimic rice in SE Asia (2) and the selection of herbicide
resistant weed species.
3. What is the issue with zebra mussels? (3) What are some attributes of the invasive purple loosestrife in
eastern Ontario? (4) How are the loosestrife expanding? Why is this significant and what is Colautti
researching? What is a cline? What is the cline for the purple loosestrife demonstrated?
4. What is common between the water hyacinth and the kariba weed? Why does the kariba weed reproduce
asexually? How is its genetic sterility advantageous for it?
5. What is the biological control of invaders? What are the advantages and disadvantages? Are asexual or
sexual invasive species easier to control? Why?
Lecture 23: Biodiversity, extinction, & conservation biology
1. How will organisms respond to climate change? (3) In Weis‟ studies, what was seen wrt drought and
2. What is biodiversity? Differentiate between species and genetic diversity. What is phylogenetic diversity?
Why is conservation biology struggling to have greater impacts? What is the current main cause of
extinction? What are 2 other causes of extinction? What are 3 types of extinction and what are their relative
3. What is conservation biology? How is island biogeographic theory involved? What is SLOSS? What is
habitat fragmentation and why is it a concern? What are minimum viable population sizes? What are some
genetic issues in conservation biology? (3) What was found in the genes of cheetahs? How does this affect
the cheetahs (2)? What could this be an indication of? What is the problem with animals in zoos? What was
Vavilov‟s concern with crops?
Lab 4: Measuring Genetic Variation