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BIO120 Term Test 1 Exam Analysis

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University of Toronto St. George

Exam Analysis: Adaptation and Biodiversity, Midterm 1 1. TEST BREAK DOWN: There are four independent topics covered in the first midterm, which are atomic structure, stoichiometry, gases and solutions. The test is usually 50 minutes, and worth 25 marks. All of the questions will be multiple choice questions, and in order to master the term test, you will need to have good knowledge of each topic. You need to a solid understanding of stoichiometry and Gases. For the detailed importance of each topic, please refer to the question statistics as follows. 2. TEST STATISTICS: Topics/Years Oct 2011 Oct 2012 Total 9 7 Climate and Biomes 16 2 8 Physiological ecology 10 Species distribution 1 1 2 Population growth 12 9 21 25 25 Total 50 Climate and 14 Biomes Physiological 12 Ecology Species 10 distribution 8 6 4 2 0 Jan-11 Jan-12 KNOWLEDGE SUMMARY: Climate and Biomes Climate:  Pattern of variation in temperature, moisture, precipitation, winds and atmospheric pressure.  Temperature mostly a function of latitude. At higher altitudes we find colder regions; seasonality a function of temperature (summer-winter). At Lower latitudes warmer; seasonality a function of rainfall (dry season-wet season).  Rainfall mostly depends on atmospheric circulation, offshore ocean currents, rain shadows. (Hadley cells-equators rainy), Coriolis effect (rotation of cyclones due to wind patterns)  Trade winds (SE and NE): These winds when combined together form the Intertropic convergence zone. This zone is characterized by thunderstorms and monsoon seasonality.  Westerlies: Blow from the west to the east. They are responsible for the roaring forties that allow albatross to cover long distances  Horse latitudes: Areas spanning 30 to 35 degrees both north and south. These areas lie in between Hadley and Ferrell cells and receive little precipitation thereby producing dry regions.  Biomes are ecosystems with similar climate and vegetation patterns. There are different biomes and each have their own characteristic productivity based on their rainfall and temperature SUMMARY OF QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED: 1- Source of seasonality 2- Hadley cell and Ferrell cell RELATED PAST TEST QUESTIONS: Oct-2012 Midterm 1 Q1 Answer: There are four seasons in a calendar year: Spring, summer, autumn and winter. Seasons result due to earth’s revolution around the sun and tilt of earth’s axis relative to its revolution. Below the equator, sun rays hit the surface of the earth at a higher angle resulting in regions with higher temperature. Regions above the equator are marked by sun rays hitting the surface of earth at a lower angle and also spanning greater area resulting in lower intensity and colder temperatures. At equator, the sun rays hit the surface of earth perpendicularly and span smallest amount of area. This results in hotter temperature and variable seasonality across the globe at the same time. Thus northern and southern hemisphere at any given time experience opposite seasons. Answer is D. Length of the year is determined by the speed at which earth completes its entire orbit around the sun. Overall global temperature would not change the most since the source that emits heat is the same. Coriolis Effect would not change since Coriolis force which is generated due to earth’s rotation remains the same. This force causes winds on the surface of the Earth to be deflected in a clockwise manner ithe Northern hemisphere and in a counter-clockwise sense in the Southern hemisphere. Oct-2012 Midterm 1 Questions 10 Answer: Wandering albatross is able to cover large distances due to roaring forties. These winds are contributed by the westerlies that flow from the west towards the east. Horse latitudes are regions characterized by little precipitation and calm winds and they cannot be responsible for the long distances travelled by the seabird. The easterlies are trade winds and they don’t contribute to roaring forties. KNOWLEDGE SUMMARY Physiological ecology Animals  Environmental challenges to physiology: heat balance o Heat exchange between organisms and their environment takes place through radiation, conduction, convection, evaporation and redistribution. Convection is heat exchange through the movement of fluids (gases and liquids). Conduction is heat transfer through contact with other surface. Radiation is heat transfer through electromagnetic radiation. Evaporation is heat loss from wet surfaces and redistribution is reallocating heat from the core to appendages  Homeostasis- maintaining constant body conditions, especially temperature because enzymes that mediate metabolism function at optimal temperature. Animals spend energy to maintain homeostasis.  Factors for thermal ecology: Size, insulation, shape and evaporative cooling o Bergman’s rule: Homeotherms tends to be larger at higher altitudes o Allen’s rule: endotherms from cold climates have shorter limbs/appendages  .Trade off principle and adaptive compromi
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