Biology Notes.pdf

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Don Mills CIBiology Notes Full course notes for SBI3U Michel KiflenTABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents1 Digestion and Nutrition2 Nutrients2 Components in Human Digestion5 Main processes in Human Digestion7 Notable Digestive Disorders7 Control and Homeostasis8 Respiration 9 Structures in the Respiratory System9 Gas Exchange and the Respiration process11 The human respiratory system13 The Trachea and Bronchial Tree 14 Diseases of the Respiratory System15 The Circulatory System16 Blood 17 Blood Vessels19 The Heart20 Genetics23 Cellular Reproduction23 Genes and DNA 24 Notable Genetic Disorders25 Evolution26 Selection and Speciation28 The Evolutionary History of Life29 Evolutionary Theory30 Classification of Living Things31 Viruses31 Eubacteria And Archaebacteria32 Protista32 Plantae33 Animalia34 Fungi 35 Tanxomonic Tree37 1DIGESTION AND NUTRITION NUTRIENTS Living things are composed of nonliving chemicals There are six nutrient chemicals that all life requires They are y Proteins y Carbohydrates y Lipids fats y Vitamins y Minerals y Water Carbohydrates sugars are the bodys main source of energy and the largest component of the diet Food examples are potatoes bread corn rice and fruits y The simple sugars monosaccharides are CHO isomers They are 6126o Glucosefound in all cells of the body used for cell respiration The chemical test for glucose is Benedicts Solution o Fructosefound in fruits and tastes sweeter than glucose o GalactoseSugar found in mammalian milk y The disaccharides double sugars are two monosaccharides linked together They are o Maltoseglucoseglucose used in making beermalt flavour o Lactoseglucosegalactose milk sugar o Sucroseglucosefructose brown and white sugars y The polysaccharides more than two monosaccharides joined together They are o Starch1000s of glucose molecules joined together plant storage product The chemical test for starch is iodine o Cellulosecomponent of cell walls isomer of starch cannot be digested by humans ingested as roughage Aids in the elimination of wastes as it holds water eg wood o Glycogenprincipal storage product in animals stored in liver and muscles o Chitinforms a hard external skeleton in insects and crustaceans using in making strong nondecomposable surgical thread Lipids are divided into three groups fats oils and waxes phospholipids and steroids The function of lipids are y They can supply energy to the body but are harder to process than carbs y An excellent energy storage molecule the body begins to burn fat after 20 minutes of exercise y Aids in the absorption of vitamins some vitamins are not water soluble y Serves as insulation from the cold y Components of cell membranes keeps cells from dissolving y Aid in the synthesis of hormones steroid hormones eg testosterone made from fat y Protects organs inside the body y Make the body insoluble and floating ie polar bears have fat to keep warm and float 2
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