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1how to breathe First nostrils for odour detection Choana posterior nostrils that open into the roof of the mouth 2 How to move Fin rays eventually lost in tetrapodsray ns do not contribute to limb formation Stage one panderichtys Pectoral n complete upperhumerusand lowerradiusulna forelimb Beginning of wrist carpals radials and many n rays Pelvic n complete upperfemur and lower hindlimbs tibiabula begging a of ankletarsals radials and many n rays Stage two tiktaalik Articulation between upper and lower arm boneselbow joint Articulation between lower arm bones and carpalsexible wrist No bones between collar bone and skullneck mobility Stage three acanthostega HandmetacarpalsngersFootmetacarpalstoes No more n rays in the paired appendages Amphibia skin1Gymnophiona ACaudata BAnuraCBenet of skin permeable to gases and water efciency depends on surface moistness Cutaneous respirationbreathe through skin Cost skin must be moist all the time Gymnophiona Longlimbless no arms legs pelvic girdle or pectoral girdleReduceno tailsAnnuli Robustossied skull for burrowing Moist tropical environments and most are terrestrial some are complete aquatic Bright colors toxic All species have internal fertilization via phallodeum75 viviparous matrotrophic 25 oviparouslecithotrophicSome oviparous matrotrophic produce lipid dermis that babies eat Special fetal dentition CaudataAdults have no tailno scales Temperate Weak limbs 90 degrees to body Lost pelvic girdle and hindlimbs in some speciesReduced forelimbs and hindlimbs Sequester tetrodotoxin unken display No vocal cords Internal fertilization males do not have intromitten organ through spermatophores Courtship pheromonesslapping wafting scratching Oviparouslecithotrophic 50female guarding of eggs50 no gaurding Anura Tailless adults back legs stronger then front Terrestrialfew totally aquatic No marine species Toxic secretions sequestered Bufonids produce cardio toxins species have external fertilizationall species use amplexus Oviparous lecithotrophic Most species have no care
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