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Midterm notes bio251 .pdf

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Principle components of the endo membrane systemCell wall rigidallows for build up of turgor pressure Middle lamella Pectin cement cell wall to next cellstability Primary wall cellulosehemicellulose pectin structuralnon structural proteins Cellulose microberslong chain glucose molecules Pectin alcian blue stains Hydrophilic Laid down during cell divisonSecondary wall cellulose hemicellulose lignin Laid down after primary cell wall Lignin 3layered s1greatest strength Plasmodesmata Communicationtransport between cells Nucleus Controls activity of cellsStores genetic info Bounded by two membranes Plastids Semiautonomous organelles Pro plastids precursor stem cell both contain own DNA Chloroplastphotosynthesis lipid synthesis ribosomes tRNAs machinery Chromoplast lack chlorophyll but have caroteniods orangeyellow Both divide by ssion Amyloplaststarch synthesis storage Both evolved from bacteria acquired by symbiosis MitochondriaSite of cellular respirationBound by one membrane peroxisomesPhoto respirationConversion of fats to sugars VacuoleDerived from ER to GolgiVolume for celltakein water for turgor pressureStoragesugars pigmentswaste product amino acids Endo membrane systemEndoplasmic reticulum1Protein synthesis rough ER ALipid synthesis smooth ER BGolgi 2Modication and packaging of proteins secretion pectins cellular recycling ACytoskeleton Microtubules1Movement and positioning structures within cellMicro laments 2Protoderm Epidermal function Protection against UV and light radiationControl of water and nutrient uptake Regulation of gas exchange Attracting pollinators during reproduction Pavement cells majority of cells do not conduct photosynthesis but guard cells do Cuticleprevent water lossStomataguard cells and a poreregulating gas exchange and water loss Trichomesepidermal outgrowthsreect excess light attraction of pollinators trap themseed dispersaldefenseGround tissueParenchyma Living at maturity Many sided involved in cold adaptationinvolved in defense signaling from herbivorepathogen attack Most abundant cell type in plant Primary cell wall98 secondary Chlorenchyma chloroplast containing parenchymaphotosynthesis Storage parenchyma contain amyloplasts Transport transfer cells cell wall in growthsCollenchyma Living at maturity Elongate in shape Primary wall only pectin rich alcian blue stains pectin blue Provides support to growing regions for primary stemHigh plasticity low elasticity Found in petioles Scleranchyma Dead at maturity if living bers function in storage short distance transport Fibers and sclereids
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