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Study notes for fall semester labs

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University of Toronto St. George
Benjamin Wright

CHAPTER 1: Insect Diversity and Adaptation - Insects (class Insecta, with 29 orders) o Arthropods: animals with jointed legs NOTE! o Body: head, thorax, and abdomen Evolution is change From thorax extend 3 pairs of legs, 1-2 pairs of wings over generations in the o Variety of habitats proportion of o Most successful order: beetles - Adaptation individuals with a certain trait. o The trait: improves the organisms chances of survival and reproduction May be physical or behavioural Eventually spreads through entire population by natural selection o The process: through which such traits arise o Mechanism: natural selection New traits and new combinations of traits arise through Mutation: genetic errors Recombination: mixing of genes through sex Individuals with favourable traits will have higher fitness Should such trait be heritable, eventually population will have it NOTE! Not all traits are adaptations. Consider the evolutionary history and relationships (phylogeny) Not all differences between populations are the result of natural selection Genetic drift and gene flow cause populations to change genetically Adaptation Viability OR Reproduction Notes Camouflage Viability Feeding Viability Life in Water Viability Intra-Sexual Reproduction Competition Mate Choice Reproduction Insects Order Notes Butterflies Lepidoptera Complete metamorphosis Larvae feed on vegetation, adults on nectar: different mouthparts Adults reproduce: brightly coloured wings Predator: birds www.notesolution.comWaterstriders Hemiptera Habitat: surface film of pools, streams, oceans Mate choice: struggles only some males can overcome Water-repellent hairs on feet Long, thin legs supporting light body Tubular sucking mouthparts Excellent eyesight Walkingsticks Phasmatodea Climate: tropics Diet: leaves Mate choice: longer females preferred Predators: birds, small mammals Incomplete metamorphosis Appearance: camouflage Leaf Insects Phasmatodea Incomplete metamorphosis Madagascar hissing Blattodea Habitat: forests cockroaches Diet: vegetable matter Intra-sexual competition & mate choice: males have bumps on dorsal prothorax for defending territory and mating, females prefer larger Intra-sexual competition & mate choice: males to intimidate or court, females prefer louder hisses Females carry eggs in ootheca Stag, rhino, and buffalo Coleoptera Complete metamorphosis beetles Habitat: decaying wood Intra-sexual competition: males have mandibles to fight other males Stalk-eyed flies Diptera Complete metamorphosis
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