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Notes for Final Exam

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BIO 120 LECTURE ONE Chapter 1 William Cronon Uncommon Ground 1 Nature tends toward a selfrestoring equilibrium when left alone the balance of nature 2 In the absence of human action nature exists in a pristine state Organism approach individuals adaptation and limitations Population approach population dynamics age sex number etc Community approach common currencies energy elements etc Biosphere approach movement of air and water ocean current wind etc Temporal variation environment change over time intrinsic fire cycle or extrinsic diseaseSpatial variation patchiness the faster it moves the smaller the scale of spatialtemporal variation Nile perch into Lake VictoriaThe introduce perch annihilated the natural cichlid populations driving many unique species to extinction destroying the native fishery and severely reducing its own food supplyThe California sea otter Sea otters recovery caused the availability of sea urchins and such to decrease while letting the kelp forest harvest Orcas are seeking sea otters as an alternative food source as regular prey population declinesChapter 4 Equilibrium water vapour pressure 100kpa evaporation 100kpa precipitationHadley circulation Hadley cell intertropical convergenceFerrel cell subtropical highpressure beltsPolar cellCoriolis Effect veer to right in the N Hemisphere veer to left in S Hemisphere affect ocean current Thermohaline circulation current drive by change in density caused by variation in salinity and temperature N Atlantic Deep WaterYounger Dryas after a recent glacial period fresh melt water shutdown thermohaline circulation and a cold spell casted over N America ad N EuropeThe movement of the intertropical convergence follows the solar equator producing a moving belt 20 NS of rainfallMerida Mexicosingle rainy season and a marked dry seasonBogota Colombiatwo rainy seasons two moderately dry seasonRio de Janeiro Brazilsingle dry season single rainy season Summer Stratification of thermoclines zone of abrupt temp change depressed productivityNormal year 1 Cold Peru current flows along the coast of S America 2 Peru current moves W and warms 3 Warm air rises in the W Pacific and travels E then descends over S AmericaEl Nino 1 Sea surface is warm in the C ad E Pacific 2 Warm air rises in the C Pacific travels E and W then descends 3 Warm water piles up the coast of N AmericaA Halfmillion year climatic record Isotopes dating of sediment core taken from the bottom of the N Atlantic Ocean shows 100000 year cycles of temperature corresponding to glacial and interglacial climatic cycles proving that temperature changes at the bottom of the ocean parallel those at the surface confirming that no place on earth escapes variations in climate Topographic influences riparian forests between hillsides S facing slopes in N hemisphere are limit to xeric forms Adiabatic cooling 6 10C 1000m Life zones in SW United States mountains 1 Lower Sonoran2 Upper Sonoran3 Transition4 Canadian Hudsonian 5 AlpineWhich came first the soil or the forest From a sediment core from Lake KisMohos Hungary it is clear that the soil retained its nature until well after the establishment of deciduous vegetation so apparently this vegetation changes caused the soil change in this caseChapter 5 Walter Climate zones Climate diagrams area where precipitation is higher than temperature allows plant growth Whittakers Biome SchemesBiome Climate Vegetation Tropical rain forest Always moist and lacking temperature Evergreen tropical rain forest Equatorial I seasonalityTropical seasonal forest Summer rainy season and winter dry Seasonal forest scrub or Savannah Tropical II season savannah Subtropical desert Highly seasonal arid climate Desert vegetation with Subtropical Hot desert considerable exposed surface III Woodland Shrubland Winter rainy season and summer Sclerophyllous drought
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