BIO130 Notes(Comparison Charts) T1.docx

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Gillian Rowe

Prokaryotes: Eubacteria/Archaebacteria Eukaryotes General Structure -no membrane bound organelles -real nucleus and other -common cytoplasmic area membrane bound -circular DNA organelles -single celled -linear DNA -smaller -single or multicellular -cell wall: protection and flagella & cilia (some) -larger -selective plasma membrane -plants have cell walls -model: E.coli -has microtubules, -same genetic code(Eubacteria exceptions) mitochondrion, -uses histone like proteins selective plasma membrane -model: Yeast, drosophila, mouse -same genetic code Replication Semiconservative: each new daughter DNA contains 1 strand of parental DNA Synthesized from 5’-3’; template is read from 3’-5’ Components -dNTPs Starts from the same location on DNA -Origin -ATP as energy -Primers -DNA polymerase -A=T rich area (easier to open) -Accessory proteins -Recognized and bound to by initiator proteins -ARS can be inserted into plasmids and can fxn as an origin of replication (Histidine gene experiment on Yeast) 1) Unidirectional Growth, 2 origins (linear virus) 2) Unidirectional Growth, 1 origin (some plasmids) 3) Bidirectional, 1 origin (eukaryotes and bacteria) -Site: cytosol/nucleoid -Site: nucleus -single origin (cicular), bidirectional growth, 2 -Multiple origins, many are usable but a few are most replication forks commonly used -2 replication forks at each start point 1) Initiator proteins bind to origin 2) Loading protein helps Helicase bind (ATP needed), Helicase unwinds DNA helix (6 subunits) 3) Single Strand binding proteins bind to ssDNA to straighten DNA and prevent H-bonding 4) RNA primers synthesized by DNA primase (5’-3’ template strand, primer made 3’-5’) 5) DNA pol. 6) Clamp loader loads clamp that holds polymerase on to DNA 7) DNA ligase seals the nicks between Okazaki fragments (RNA primer and DNA) on lagging strand DNA packaging Important Components: -Genome is packaged into chromosomes (chromosome painting hybridization, incorporating a fluorescent label, view in karyotype -positively charged polyamines to see array of paired chromosomes) -NAPs(nucleoid-associated proteins): H-NS, Chromosome: histone-like proteins: HU, IHF, FIS Humans: 23 pairs, single long linear DNA molecule + proteins -topoisomerase: helps supercoiling and Chromatin: winding and unwinding -Tightly packaged, but accessible for transcription, replication and repair, Dynamic -condensed thru folding and twisting about -Interphase: not compact at all, take out membrane and DNA spills 1000 fold out, 30nm fiber stage -DNA and protein form nucleoid Organization: loops of chromatin: larger loops for easy access, regions in nucleus that gene’s frequency of expression changes, when gene needs to be expressed the loop extends it to the region of expression Heterochromatin Euchromatin -condensed chromatin -relatively non-condensed -mitotic and meiotic chromatin chromosomes -euchromatic regions: gene
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