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midterm pt1.docx

14 Pages

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Kenneth Yip

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Part I Intro to cell Prokaryotes before nucleus no ER singlecelledDNA in nuclear area not membrane bounded 1um with cell wall PEPTIDOGLYCAN rigidity Circular genomic DNAplasmid OrganellesCiliaflagella modify structuresRibosomes synthesize polypeptidesPhilli attach to surfaces of othersNucleoid DNAPlasma membrane selective filterSingle cytoplasmicNo nucleus bc no intronsdo not need to separate transcription from translation Eubacteria Eubacteria typical bacteria y Cell wall except mycoplasma o Mycoplasma smallest cell ArchaeaArchaebacteria y Extreme environment y Cell wall o Thermophiles thrive in springs o Halophiles Salt loving o Methanogens decomposition true nucleus singlecelled multicellular Eukaryotes DNA in nucleus membrane bounded 10um endomembrane system nuclear envelope golgi ER plasma membrane no mitochondria cytoskeleton Organelles Cytosol fluid component of cytoplasm metabolic activitiesMembranes specific cellular activities within regionsendomembrane system enclose nucleus ER golgi lysosomes vacuole peroxisomes Connect pass materialsNucleus chromosomes prevent ribosome from having access to introns separate transcription nucleus from translation cytoplasm Nuclear envelope separate nuclear material from cytoplasm innerouter membrane interrupted by nuclear poresNucleolus ribosome subunit synthesisassembly nuclear organizing region site whererRNA is madeMitochondria aerobic respiration in highly active cells liver double membrane outer membrane smooth passmolecules intermembrane spacematrix inner membrane foldsselective cristae increase SA for chem rxnChloroplasts plant cells chlorophyll 2 membranes small space inner membrane stroma thylakoidaEndoplasmic Reticulum volume Rough ER with ribosomes for surface protein synthesisassemblySmooth ER no ribosomes for phospholipidsteroid synthesis fatty acid carbohydrate metabolismproteins modified in ER lumenflattened saclike structure cisternaeGolgi complex stacks of flattened membranous sacs cisternaeprocess sort modify proteinVacuole fluid filled sacs central vacuolestorage contractile vacuole expel excess water phagocytic vacuole white blood cell plant vacuole are lysosome like maintain hydrostatic pressure in plantRibosomes RNAprotein 3 RNA moleculesprotein in eukaryotes in cytosol internal membrane enzymes form peptide bonds
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