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BIO130H1 (88)

Study sheet with all topics covered in lectures and labs.

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University of Toronto St. George
Jane Mitchell

BIO130 Final Exam Study Sheet P a g e1 Part 1 Cells and Genomes - All cells: o Store data as DNA o Use RNA as intermediary form of data o Use proteins as catalysts o Translate RNA the same way (via ribosome) o Are enclosed in a plasma membrane - Homologous genes genes that were once the same gene (but was changed) o Orthologs Same gene diverged due to intragentic mutations into 2 different genes Usually results in speciation o Paralogs Duplication and divergence of genes in the SAME organism - Gene transfer between organisms o Bacteriophage viruses can implant DNA into bacterial genomes o Procaryotes can take up random DNA from environment - Model Organisms (M.O.) o Rapid development o Tractability o Small adult (mature stage) o Readily available o Genes understandable Created by Marina Wang BIO130 Final Exam Study Sheet P a g 2 E. Coli Used to model prokaryotes and bacteria Lives in your gut Synechocystis A phototrophic cyanobacterium Yeast M.O. for eukaryotes Arabidopsis M.O. for plants The common Thale cress Caenorhbditis elegans Nematode worm Has exactly 959 body cells Drosophila melanogaster Fruit fly - Eukaryotes o Entered endosymbiosis with a small energy generating bacteria (later the mitochondria) o Some cells then formed symbiosis with a chloroplast-like bacteria These cells grew cell walls as they no longer had a need to move DNARNA - DNA: deoxyribosenucleic acid - RNA: ribosenucleic acid (extra OH group at carbon 2) - Formed from triphosphates Created by Marina Wang
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