BIO130 Section One Guide (2)

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Yip

Chapter 2 Cell Chemistry and Biosynethsis (pg. 51-64) Water Is the Most Abundant Substance in Cells - Water accounts for about 70% of a cells weight - DNA, RNA, sugars, and most proteins are all hydrophilic - Uncharged Molecules of long hydrocarbon tails that are hydrophobic can be exploited to construct membranes Four Types of Noncovalent Attractions Help Bring Molecules Together in Cells - In aqueous solution, covalent bonds are 10-100x stronger than other attractions between atoms - There are three three noncovalent chemical bonds that are much weaker: o Ionic (electrostatic attraction) forms permanent dipoles Polar water molecules cluster around both fully charged ions to reduce the electron affinity of both oppositely charged atoms o Hydrogen bonds where an electropositive H atom is partially shared by two electronegative atoms a proton that has partially dissociated from a donor atom, allowing it to be shared by a second acceptor atom highly directional o van der Waals attractions the electron cloud around any nonpolar atom will fluctuate, producing a flickering dipole o hydrophobic force caused by a pushing of nonpolar surfaces out of the H- H bonded water network, where they would otherwise interfere with the highly favourable interactions between water molecules bringing any two nonpolar surfaces together reduces their contact with water central to the proper folding of protein molecules A Cell Is Formed from Carbon Compounds - carbon is outstanding among all the elements in its ability to form large molecules (silicon is a poor second) - C-C covalent bonds are highly stable no upper limit to their size Cells Contain Four Major Families of Small Organic Molecules - Sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, nucleotides Sugars Provide an Energy Source for Cells and Are the Subunits of Polysaccharides
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