BIO130 Section Two Guide (1)

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Yip

Chapter 10 Membrane Structure Lecture 1: (pg. 617-624) Plasma membrane encloses the cell, defines its boundaries, and maintains differences between the cytosol and extracellular environment The Lipid Bilayer - Lipid bilayer provides basic structure for all cell membranes Phosphoglycerides, Sphingolipids, and Sterols and the Major Lipids in Cell Membranes - 50% of animal cell membranes are lipids 9 o 10 lipid molecules in plasma membrane of small animal cell - ALL lipid molecules in cell membranes are amphiphilic o Hydrophobic water- fearing nonpolar end o Hydrophilic water- loving polar end - Phospholipids polar head group + 2 hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails o One tail is cis-double bonded creating a kink in the tail (unsaturated) o Differences in the length and saturation of fatty acid tails influence how these molecules pack against one another, affecting the fluidity of the membrane - Main phospholipids in most animal cell membranes are phosphoglycerides o 3 carbon glycerol backbone; 2 fatty acids are linked to 2 adjacent carbon atoms through ester bonds, and 3 C atom is attached to a phosphate group, which in turn attaches to other types of head groups - A combination of different head groups and fatty acids create different phosphoglycerides o Eg. phoshatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine - Another important phospholipid is sphingomyelin; built from sphingosine instead of glycerol
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