BIO130 Section Two Guide (3A)

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Yip

Chapter 12 Intracellular Compartments and Protein Sorting Lecture 5+6: (pg. 695-704, 721-727) - Each organelle contains its own enzymes and other specialized molecules The Compartmentalization of Cells All Eukaryotic Cells Have the Same Basic Set of Membrane-Enclosed Organelles - Membrane bound enzymes catalyze lipid metabolism, and oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis both require a membrane to couple the transport of H to the+ synthesis of ATP - Intracellular membrane systems form enclosed compartments separated from the cytosol o Creates functionally specialized aqueous spaceswithin the cell - Because lipid bilayers are impermeable to most hydrophilic molecules, membrane must contain transport proteins to importexport specific metabolites Intracellular Function Compartment Nucleus Principal site for DNA and RNA synthesis. Cytoplasm Contains cytosol and cytoplasmic organelles. Cytosol - Site of protein synthesis and degradation. - Performs most of the cells intermediary metabolism (degrading small molecules and synthesize other to provide building blocks for macromolecules). Endoplasmic - RER has many ribosomes on its cytosolic surface they reticulum synthesize both soluble and vital membrane proteins destined for secretion to cell exterior or for other organelles. - Proteins are transported into the ER as they are synthesized (NOT AFTER, but DURING). - functions as a store for Ca ions - tubes extend from nucleus throughout entire cytosol Golgi apparatus - receives proteins and lipids from ER - consists of stacks of disc-like compartments called Golgi cisternae - Dispatches lipids and proteins from the ER to various destinations - Is able to covalently modify them en route - located close to the nucleus Mitochondria - generate most ATP used to drive reactions chloroplasts - chloroplasts are specialized versions of plastids (can also serve as storage for food and pigment molecules) Lysosomes - contain digestive enzymes that degrade dead organelles and macromolecules taken in from outside the cell by endocytosis - endycytosed material pass through endosomes on the way
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