Introduction to Plants Glossary.docx

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Michael Baker

Plant Glossary Tracheophytes [Gr. trakhoia: tube + phyton: plant]: Those plants with xylem and phloem, including psilophytes, club mosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Nontracheophytes: Those plants lacking well-developed vascular tissue; the liverworts, hornworts, and mosses. Gymnosperm (jim´ no sperm) [Gr. gymnos: naked + sperma: seed]: A plant, such as a pine or other conifer, whose seeds do not develop within an ovary (hence, the seeds are "naked"). Angiosperm (an´ jee oh spurm) [Gr. angion: vessel + sperma: seed]: One of the flowering plants; literally, one whose seed is carried in a "vessel" (i.e., fruit). Middle lamella: A layer of polysaccharides that separates plant cells; a shared middle lamella lies outside the primary walls of the two cells. Primary wall: Cellulose-rich cell wall layers laid down by a growing plant cell. Secondary wall: Wall layers laid down by a plant cell that has ceased growing; often impregnated with lignin or suberin. Lignin: The principal noncarbohydrate component of wood, a polymer that binds together cellulose fibrils in some plant cell walls. Suberin: A waxlike lipid that acts as a barrier to water and solute movement across the Casparian strip of the endodermis. Suberin is the waterproofing element in the cell walls of cork. Plasmodesma (plural: plasmodesmata) [Gr. plassein: to mold + desmos: band]: A cytoplasmic strand connecting two adjacent plant cells. Pits: Recessed cavities in the cell walls of a plant vascular element where only the primary wall is present. facilitating the movement of sap between cells. Parenchyma (pair eng´ kyma): A plant tissue composed of relatively unspecialized cells without secondary walls. Collench
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