BIO220 1st Term Test Study Sheet- includes textbook readings mixed in there

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University of Toronto St. George
Doug Thomson

stBIO220 1 Term Test Study Sheet Page1 Sexual interactions and evolution of sexual differences y Genetic and environmental and variation y Phenotype GenesEnvironment y RoverSitter Polymorphism o Drosophila larva sitters do not most as much while rovers move a lot o Rovers are off food patches more often but also more likely to find new patches o Due to PKGEnzyme involved in cell signalling in nervous system and gut o Sitter gene is recessiveo When inserting rover allele in sitter larvae both foraging and PKG resembles rover o Adults deprived of food for 424 h and assayed for foraging behaviour in patchy environmentSitter with 4h deprivation showed similar foraging behaviour as rover with 24h deprivation y Example of phenotypic plasticity y Morphological responses Plasticityo More use of refuge when there are predators o Genotypeenvironment interaction each genotype responds differently to environmental variationRevealed by reciprocal transplant experiments y Switching individuals between two localities o Daphnia have a helmet when there are predatorsPhototacitc behaviourScared of fishTested with and without fish smellFound that daphnia coming from environments with many fish showed greater reaction norms to fish smell compared to those that came from environments with no fish o Spadefoot toad become cannibals if the population is too great y Phenotypic Plasticity Capacity to respond to environmental variation stBIO220 1 Term Test Study Sheet Page2 y Reaction norm Observed relationship between phenotype of individual and environment y Cactus wrens o Nests must be properly oriented for seasonCool weather entrance away from windWarm weather entrance facing wind y Acclimatization o Shift in individuals range of physiological tolerances o Is reversible o Plants acclimatized to different temperatures in greenhouse and then tested over wide range of temperaturesMax photosynthetic rate reaches same level in platnts acclimatized in 20 and 45 degreesPlants acclimatized to 20 degrees do worse at 45 degrees compare to plants acclimatized to 45 degrees y Developmental Responses o Coloured grasshopper G africanus develop colour to match its surroundingFrom green to yellowbrown to blackIrreversible Dimorphismsy Frigate bird has giant red sac y Great sagegrouse has weird bouncing things on their chest y Many animals have armaments to fight y Polygamy Longterm bonds with more than one individual of opposite sex y Polygyny Male mates with more than one femalesPromiscuity in males o Polygamy ThresholdMale redwinged blackbirds establish territories
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