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James Thomson

Lab 1 Eutrophication Null Hypothesis Fertilizers phosphorus and nitrate will have no effect on the system Eutrophication results from continuous pollution in the form of agricultural runoff or sewage outflows human or animalFertilizers and sewage outflows are high in nitrogen and phosphorusessential for plant growth in terrestrial and aquatic environmentsThese nutrients are typically in low concentrations and limit the numbers of algae and aquatic plantsWhen concentrations are increased to high levels primary production can explode resulting in eutrophication Nitrogen eutrophicationinshore marine watersPhosphorus eutrophicationfreshwater systemsAlgal bloomfirst stage of eutrophicationappears as a thick green film near the surface of the wateroccurs when algal populations experience exponential growth in response to heavy nutrient loadingoPrevents sunlight from reaching other algae and aquatic plants below the surface causing them to dieoPopulations of organisms that feed on algae also increase in numberThe bloom prevents algae and aquatic plants below the surface from receiving sunlight causing them to dieAlgal cells are lots of dead matter is produced when they die shortlived The large amounts of dead plant and animal material are decomposed byheterotrophic organisms mainly bacteria which use oxygen and produce CO while feeding on plant material2High rates of decomposition result in low oxygen and high CO2oBoth are detrimental to aquatic organisms that require oxygen to surviveThe end result of eutrophication is typically a large number of dead organisms mostly fishThe death of aquatic plants also results in habitat loss for invertebrates and fishWhen oxygen levels are high green algae are more common Phylum ChlorophytaWhen oxygen levels decrease bluegreen algae are more common they are more tolerant to lower oxygen Phylum cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria carry out photosynthesis and require water nitrogen gas oxygensome mineral elements light and carbon dioxide to survive oThey produce a lot of toxiccompounds which contribute to fishmortality Experimental ProtocolThree treatments no fertilizer moderate fertilizer high fertilizer on an aquatic environment containing phyloplankton and Salvinia Controlcontains only tap waterHigh treatment10 times the amount of fertilizer applied to moderate Add 500mL of the appropriate treatment every week since evaporation of water in the pails is high and to simulate a eutrophic system where the input of nutrients occurs over time PhyloplanktonMicroscopic singlecelled aquatic organisms that form filaments or multicelled coloniesPhotoautotrophsuse light energy to make macromolecules from simple precursorsoLightprimary source of energy Major nutrientsCarbon Nitrogen Phosphorusalso combined with Oxygen and Hydrogenform the basis of energy metabolism Shortlivednew cells multiply old cells die
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