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Final

BIO220 Final Exam Study Sheet.docx

13 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO220H1
Professor
Doug Thomson

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BIO220 Final Exam Study Sheet P a g e | 1 Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics Mitochondria DNA can track maternal lineages Y chromosome can track paternal lineages Elephant social system o Males are generally still reproductive when their daughters mature o Since its hard to observe elephants (which live really long) they just tracked their behaviour Found that courtship behaviours are directed away from kin Migrating wolves o Some wolves migrate, some dont Northern wolves follow migrating caribou south for winter and back north for summer Southern wolves prey on deer, moose, elk, etc. Are territorial o Different wolves might show genetic differences in neutral markers o Spatial divide of alleles seems to indicate genetic differentiation; Quantifstwith F F = 1 for complete differentiation st Fst 0 for non differentiation at all o mtDNA: F st0.28 o Y-chromosome: F =st.03 o Wolves generally stay with their mothers pack; so mtDNA tends to stay in the same pack resulting in higher differentiation Human marriage customs Patrilocality (Females move; males stay) Matriolocality (Females stay; males move) High Y-chromosome differentiation Low Y-chromosome differentiation Low mtDNA differentiation High mtDNA differentiation Human Agricultural Coevolution Many Europeans have lactase production throughout adulthood Convergent evolution o Different human populations that raise dairy all have higher chances of being lactose tolerant later in life Selection affects the genome means we should expect o Difference in fate of mutants that change amino acids o Low variability in genome areas that are not under selection o More differentiation of genome areas that are under selection pressure o Synonymous No change in amino acid o Replacement (non-synonymous) Change in amino acid o For beneficial mutations,nd sd > 1 BIO220 Final Exam Study Sheet P a g e | 2 o Genetic Hitchhiking: As beneficial mutations become fixed in a population, they drag with them nearby mutations Region size depends on rate of recombination o Gene for armor plating in freshwater vs sea water fish shows hist F Humans populations that eat more starch have higher numbers of the amylase gene Genetic Diversity in Agricultural Systems 60% of our food energy from rice, maize and wheat Center of Origin o Crops originated in areas where the genetic diversity of their wild ancestors is the greatest Vavilov center of diversity Vernalization o Lysenko discovered induction of early flowers in biennial crops by applying cold o Caused by epigenetics But is reset during meiosis so that it doesnt carry over into next generation Lead to backwards Soviet biology and genetics Domestication of crops causes o Severe bottleneck o Strong artificial selection o Reduced genetic variation Measured by H: average frequency of heterozygous individuals per gene locus P: proportion of gene loci that are polymorphic : Average number of nucleotide differences per site for any randomly sampled pair Domestication of Maize from Teosinte o Maize is corn o Domestication 10 000-5 000 years ago o Both bottle neck and selection reduce effective population size (N ) Effective size is the adults that breed, usually less than Census size (N) o Selected loci show greater reduction ineN compared to bottleneck which produces genome wide reduction in N e o Test if a gene is selected for by looking for evidence of more severe bottleneck o 2-4% of teosinte genome experienced strong artificial selection As detected in imprint in genome Extrapolated to 1200 genes o Long term selection experiment of 100 generations of selection on corn for protein and oil Limits to artificial selection not reached Due to many genes affecting these traits BIO220 Final Exam Study Sheet P a g e | 3 o Use existing genetic variation and planned breeding Score crop varieties for gene of interest and identify markers that co-segregate Selectively breed genetic marker into crop variety; gene of interest should follow Eg. Vitamin A and maize Find SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms) that are correlated with B- carotene production o Pest management Potato famine Potatoes are clonal Oomycete (Phytophthora infestans- fungus-like eukaryote that is not a fungi) infested it Shows the risk of monocultures lacking genetic variety Ecology and Evolution of Harvested Populations Simple population growth model: o N= abundance o t= time o r= intrinsic rate of population growth of species o K= carrying capacity As N K, dN/dt 0 As N 0, dN/dt rN Density-dependent growth rate limit population size o Tern bird carry capacity on islands limited by nesting space Ideal harvesting strategy: harvest K/2 individuals per year so population is at max growth rate o Despite the maximum sustained yield there is economic pressure to harvest more This leads to extinction Evolution of harvesting o Size thresholds means that little fish are selected for o Size of antler racks and size of horns in sheep also selected for smaller ones o Discrete Mendelian traits Traits with discrete qualitative categories o Quantitative Traits Traits you can measure quantitatively Lots of genes Each gene effects phenotype in small way Influenced by environment Cannot infer genotype of gene from phenotype Examining frequency of SNPs or alleles cannot predict phenotypic value Work with statistical descriptions
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