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Final

Bio220 Notes for Final Exam

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO220H1
Professor
Locke Rowe
Semester
Winter

Description
Required Readings (focus on the diagrams on pages: 202, 234, 485, 486, 488, 494, 498, 499, 511) - small subpopulations in small habitats can die out due to loss in genetic diversity or they cannot escape natural disasters - many habitats have been altered due to human interactions (eg. Highways) - the smaller the habitat, the closer any point is to the edge which can cause more death as they are exposed to greater levels of possible threats - cowbirds prefer open fields - habitat fragmentation is one of many threats to habitat vitality - spatial structure the manner in which the space is organised - Clematis remontii in Missouri limiting factors of distribution o Climate o Ecological interaction - Dispersal limitation absence of population from a suitable habitat due to barriers to dispersal - Migration o Can be due to lack of food supplies o Ecological niche modeling map locations where species are located graph physical conditions map locations where conditions occur map locations of conditions where species are introduced - Dispersion spacing of individuals from one another in a geographic range of a population - Clmped distributions can occur due to: o To form groups o Clustered resources o Tendencies to remain close to parents - Ideal free distribution ideal way for animals to distribute themselves among patches - Source Sink model o Source patch stable, attractive, exporter o Sink patch declines to extinction, avoided, importer - Source populations populations that produce enough offspring to sustain themselves and produce excess to disperse into other areas - Continuous time models on instantaneous change in populations - Discrete Time length of time - Life table summmarises age specific schedueles of survival and fecundity - r = b-d+i-e (growth = birth death + immigration emigration) - Age structure inflrunces population growth rate - Static life table time specific - Intrinsic rat of increase exponential - Logistic equation Pop growth rate = intrinsic growth rate at N close to 0 x pop size x reduction in growth rate due to crowding - Population size is regulated by density dependant factors but can also influeneced by density independent factors(not to such an extent of the latter) - Increasing pop density can depress survival and birth rates and this is referred to as negative density dependence - Recruitment number of offspring per individual to add to the population - Haplotype closely linked genetic markers - Positive assertive mating like mates with like - Negative assertvie mating unlike partners mate - Inbreeding depression reduced fitness of a population due to inbreeding - Coalesence time time between introduction of a mutation and gene distribution - Genetic drift change in frequency of a gene in a population - Founder effects loss of genetic variation due to small groups of a larger population establishing themselves in a different area - Bottleneck population an evolutionary event that led to mass deaths of a population - Gene flow transfer of genes or alleles from one population to another - Selection in spatially variable environments can differentiate populations genetically - Ecotypes a distnict species of animal or plant occupying a particular habitat - Intermediate disturbance hypothesis species diversity is maximized when ecological disturbance is neither too often nor too rare - Ecosystem obeys thermodynamics principles - Primary production process of energy assimilation - Eddy flux covariance method to calculate vertical turbulent fluxes within layers of a boundary - Factors affecting primary production o Light Solar contant Compensation point Saturation point Photosynthetis efficiency o Temperature o Water o Nutrients - Primary production varies among ecosystems due to: o Latitude o Sunlight o Temperature o Rainfall o Abundance of nutrients - Residence time rate of energy transfer between trophiv levels - Assimilatory inorganic to organic - Dissimilatory organic to inorganic - - - Classes of the Carbon Cycle: o Photosynthesis and respiration; o Ocean-atmosphere exchange; o Precipitation of carbonates; o Methanogenesis: 4CH OH 3CH 3+ CO + 2H4O; 2 2 - Nitrogen cycle o Ammonification o Nitrification and denitrifrication o Nitrogen fixation - Heterotroph takes carbon in organic forms by consumption of other organims and organic dentrites - Autotrophs assimilate carbon as carbon dioxide and reduce it to organic molecules - Photoautotrophs use sunlight as a source of energy - Chemoautotrphs obtain carbon from CO but reduce 2it through aerobic oxidation of inorganic substrates (nitrites, hydron, ferrous iron, etc) - Acid rain is produced by burning of fossil fuels - Weathering makes nutrients available in terrestrial ecosystems - Nutrient regeneration occurs in soil - Breakdown of leaf litter o Water leaching out soluble minerals and small organic compounds o Consumption by large dentritivores o Breakdown of woody compenents o Decomposistion by bacteria - Symbiotic association of fungi and root o Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) Penetrate cells walls in root and form vesicles Formed only by fungi o Ectomychorrhiza (EcM) Woody plants From dense sheath outside small roots and penetrate spaces between the cells of the root cortical layer - Climate affects nutrient regeneration pathways and rates of regeneration - Eutrophic soils develop in geologically actice areas - Oligotrphic soils develop in old and geologically stable areas - Laterite soil types that are rich in iron and aluminium - Nutrietnes regenerate slowly in deep water aquatic systems and sediments - Stratification o Build up of layers o Hinders nutrient cycling in aquatic ecosystems - Oxygen depletion assists nutrient regeneration in deep waters - Nutrient inpits control productin in freshwater and shallow water marine ecosystems o Estuaries partly e
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