A Brief History of Animal Physiology.docx

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Chris Garside

A Brief History of Animal Physiology  Hippocrates (father of medicine): treatment of diseases  Aristotle determined the structure and function  Claudius Galenus had experiments to find out about bodily functions o He had experiments that involved dissecting organisms o Ex. He experimented with the vocal cords of a pig st  Ibn al-Nafis was the 1 to describe the anatomy of the heart, lungs and pulmonary circulation  Francois Fernal outlined knowledge about human disease  Andreas Vesalius created the 1 anatomy textbook  William Harvey identified the path of blood through the body  Before the 18 century physiologists can be divided into two groups  Iatrochemists: believed the body function only involving chemical reactions  Iatrophysicists: believed that there were only physical processes involved  Hermann boerhaave and Albercht von Haller proposed that both chemical and physical processes are at work th  In the 19 century Mattias schleiden and Theodor Schwann proposed that created the cell theory  Bernard came up with the theory that there is milieu interior (internal environment for cells  Per Scholander: responses of vertebrates and warm blooded organisms  C. Ladd Prosser: central pattern generators: groups of neurons that regulate rhythmic behaviour  Knut Scmidt-Nielsen devoted his career to understanding how organisms live in harsh environments  George Bartholomew combined animal physiology with ecology  Peter Hochchka and George Somero founded combing biochemistry and physiology Subdisciplines in Physiological Research  Modern physiology is multidisciplinary Physiological subdisciplines can be distinguished by the biological level of organization  Cell and molecular physiologists: study the phenomena that occurs at the cellular level; study molecular genetics, signal transduction and metabolic biochemistry  System physiologist: concerned about how interact and carry out specific responsibilities; study sensory systems  Organismal physiologist: concerned with the way an intact animal undertakes a specific process or behaviour; study metabolic rate; focus on a particular group of organisms  Ecological physiologist: studies how physiological properties about how the distribution and abundance of species  Integrative physiologist understand physiological processes at a variety levels  Reductionism: studying process and then function  Emergence: studying the parts as a whole Physiological subdisciplines can be distinguished by the process that generates variation  Developmental physiologist: studies how structures and functions throughout an organism’s life  Environmental physiologist: assess how animals mount physiologists responses to environmental change  Evolutionary physiologist: concerned with explaining physiological traits throughout generation Animal physiology can be a pure or applied science  Applied physiologist: is intended to achieve a specific goal  Ex. Physiologists study some animal because of economic importance  Physiology can be used to understand medicine  Comparative physiologist studies animals to explore origins Unifying Themes in Physiology Physics and Chemistry: the Basis of Physiology  Organisms are made up of chemicals and require physics to explain how they move Mechanical Theory helps u
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