Extensive and Accurately Summarized Overview of Lecture 1

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University of Toronto St. George
Melanie Woodin

BIO271 Lec 1 Readings 142160 6973Nervous Systemcentral building blocks of nervous systemy Neuronso Nervous System is broken down into the CentralPeripheralincludes the brain and spinal cordintervertebral disks vertebral bodies o Central Nervous System o Peripheral Nervous System consists of nerves that come off of the brain and spinal cordie 12 pairs of cranial nerves thoracic nerves celiac ganglion postganglionic axonsPurkinje cell found in the cerebellum of your brain that controls your movement It is a webbed dendrite that receives signalling and transforms it into electrical signalling that gets carried out through the axon to communicate with other neuronsNeurons and Gliay Three distinct types main difference is the locations of these neuronsnot their components o Motor neuron o Sensory neuron o Purkinje cell y Anything that activates sensory inputfrom mechanoreceptors to sensory systems that information is going to come in through sensory neurons into your nervous system going to go back out through motor neurons for a very short interaction with neurons o Purely reflexive movementin the spinal cordo Cognitive decisions engaging your frontal cortex come in through sensory neurons processed through brain mostly by interneuronsneurons that communicate between other neurons output goes through your motor system which will communicate with other cell types like musclesie for writing Neural Zones fig 42 y Information flow is polarized going in one directiono Input is coming into the signal reception zone along with integration conduction and transmission are not classical terms o Dendriteor Somadirectly receives the synaptic input from other neurons In the form of chemical neurotransmitterso Chemical signal is then transduced into electrical signal o Change in membrane potential initiates action potentialso Electrical signal transmits itself into the signal integration zoneaxon hillock which is where axoncomes off the soma o Action potential is most important type of information that the cell can pick up Stays the same size all the way down axon until it reaches the tissue it is communicating with o The spines on the dendrites are the postsynaptic region for excitatory neurotransmitters in mammalian cellshowever some spines exist in invertebrates and are not the sites for inhibiting neurotransmitters
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