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Cell and Systems Biology
William Navarre

Lecture 16: REVIEW 3 1. electron and carbon flow 4 ETC 2. electron tower 3. substrates generate reductants 4. electrons flowing down the tower 5. then convert to oxygen 5 6. mvmt of electrons generates PMF that can be used by ATP synthase to produce ATP 7. proton conc on one sidecreates electrochemical energy 8. 6 9. phototrophs use light to make electrons move in a photosystem (cycle) – used to make PMF 7 PATTERN 10. electron force generates PMF THIS LECTURE 8 microbes can use almost anything on the periodic table??? 9 11. microbes can take all of these redox couples present in their envmt as electron donors and acceptros 12. chemolithotrophs can use alternate electron donors 13. anaerobes can use alternate electron acceptors – instead of oxygen they can use nitrate, or sulphate 14. bacteria master the redox chemistry of their envmt 15. as long as the electrons go down the tower, energy can be produced 10 11 16. inorganic compounds are used as the eltron donor to generate NRG 12 17. energy from the oxidation of inorganic ccompounds 18. … 13 19. reduction potentials of electron donors 20. there is a huge variance in the reduction potentials 21. phosphite and hydrogen have very low negative reduction potentials 22. similar to NADH – long way for electrons to fall t2 O 23. iron has a very close reduction potential to oxygen but is enough 14 24. 2 classes of hydrogenases 15 25. large energy derived bc electrons go a huge distance from H to O 16 26. 2 diff hydrogenase enzymes 1. membrane-bound pases electrons to ETC 2. soluble one directly reduces NADH for biosynthesis 17 27. sulfur oxidizing bacteria oxidize many sulfur compounds including hydrogen sulphide, elemental sulfur, etc… 28. he showed that the oxidation of sulfur is actually step-wise 29. he did this studying microbe Beggiatoa that live in rivers 30. he found that thes rivers had compounds containing sulfides 18 31. these bactieria have sulfur granules, they eat hydrogen sulfide form the river and accumulate in their bodies 32. took bacteria out of river water and w time in regular water, the sulfur granules disappeared 33. the bacteria were using the H S as energy supply 2 19 20 34. the bacteria used soluble hydrogen sulfide from river water and oxidized it into sulfur and stores as granules 35. when remove H S2 they would oxidize sulfur into sulfate which is soluble 21 22 36. hydrogen sulfide 37. elemental sulfur (stored as granules or in cell-bound sulfur complexes) 38. sulfite has two pathways to produce sulfate 23 39. how electrons enter the electron transport chain 40. into quinone pool ____ 41. electron pairs going backwards can generate reductants for biosynthesis 24 42. … 25 43. in acidic solution, have ferrous iron 44. bacteria that grow will oxidize the into ferrous hydroxide precipitate 26 27 45. reduction potential for iron is 46. …. 47. key enzyme for iron oxidizing bacteria called rusticyanin 28 48. in the electron tower, the iron redox couple is a small drop 49. but is enough NRG for these bacteria to live off of 29 50. rusticyanin will oxidize iron, pas electrons to cytochrome c 51. to cyt a and create PMF to drive ATP synthase 30 52. they will break down ammonia in 2 steps 1. ammonia oxidizers will converte amoonium to nitrite 2. diff bacteria will convert nitridte into nitrate 31 53. ammonia oxidizers have 2 enzyes that wil drive ammonia oxidation 54. will generate product, ni
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