Scribe.Lecture 19.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Cell and Systems Biology
William Navarre

Lecture 19 2 1. bacteria sometimes behave multicellularly 3 2. bacteria are often found attached to surfaces 3. when attached to surfaces, they are physiologically diff than a state in which they are swimming freely in cultured media 4 4. biofilms are bacteria that adhere to a surface through various self-generated adhesions composed of proteins, polysaccharides, or DNA 5. … 6. opposite of a biofilm growing bacteria is a planktonic bacteria (in liquid culture) 7. they are in altered physiological state 1. diff genes are turned on 2. diff tyes of cell-cell communication 5 8. biofilm isn’t just a bunch of bacteria smeared on the surface – they are an organized community 9. they coordinate 6 10. once biofilms are established, they are very hard to get rid of by disinfection or antibiotic treatment 11. biofilms were first associated w corrosion and biofouling 7 12. biofilms aren’t all bad 13. in wastewater treatment, the silt is produced by bacteria which breakdown all the metal 8 14. rizosphree bacteria fix N and convert into useful nitrogen for the plant (Takes a lot of energy) 15. make organic compounds out of air 9 16. prime immune responses 1. immune system is more alert 10 17. hard to research bc w/o endogenous bacteria, they grow differently 11 18. diseases involving biofilms 13 19. group detoxification of harmful…: a thousand bacteria agains 1mmol of antibiotic instead of only 1 bacteri 20. cooperation, each take on a diff role, one produces acetate, one produces nitrogen 14 15 21. biofilms have structure 22. typical seen a biofilm mushroom 23. base of the slide 24. bacteria coating th eslide 16 17 25. looks diff when grown on diff things 18 26. water channels 19 27. biofilms have a circulatory system 1. allow nutrients and waste to be exchanged to have a good envmt 2. see up w channels in between to get flow 20 21 28. biofilms are not homogeneous from top to bottom - microenvmts are formed 29. down near surface (substratum), bacteria don’t get a lot of oxygen down there and build up fermentative products and decrease in pH 1. growth rate lower 30. growth rate is slower than planktonic but amount of growth is much higher in biofilm 31. diff genes can be expressed in diff microenvmts 22 32. example where we find out gene expression is not uniform in biofilms 33. under high phosphate conditions 34. alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme that bacteria produce when they feel they are being starved of phosphate 35. under phosphate starvation, cells at top sense phosphate starvation and turn on alkaline phosphatase 23 36. there are a number of ways to study biofilms 37. hard to count them 38. robbins device – liquid media flowing through a tube but into the tube, th
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