Scribe.Lecture 30.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Cell and Systems Biology
William Navarre

Lecture 30 5 1. west nile virus uses reservoirs like birds and then go on to infect mosquitos 2. a real life place where the disease hangs out – its reservoir 3. the only reservoir for TB is umans 4. pseudomonas doesn’t have a reservoir, it can survive anywhere 6 5. reservoirs are usually animals, but can also be envmts 6. diff pathogens use diff portals of entry 1. some pathogens can infect skin 2. most can’t – they infect through mucous membranes 3. ingestion 7. immunopathogenesis 1. the bacteria triggers such a big inflammatory response by the immune system that the immune system is driving the actual observable pathology 2. sometimes for the benefit of the pathogen itself 7 8. if you KO a virulence factor, you see a reduction in the ability of the pathogen to cause disease 8 9. the first and most easy way to talk about disease are the bacteria that produce toxins 10. in the cases of bacterial diseases cause by toxins, if you purify the toxin in the lab, you don’t need the bacteria anymore 1. it is a protein that the bacteria makes and secretes that can cause disease by itself ex. botox (exotoxins) 13 11. AB toxins get internalized into a vacuole (endocytosed) 12. the phagosome is then taken to the ER there there is a conformational change, and makes a pore and the A subunit then goes into the cytoplasm, attaches an ADP ribose to a host G protein that regulates adenylate cyclase, leading to massive ion flux 14 13. clostridial toxins are the most potent toxins 17 14. anthrax is also made by a gm+ bacteria, bacillus anthracis 15. it is related to bacillus subtilis, both make spores 16. one way to get anthrax is inhaling spores 17. makes 2 diff toxins using the same delivery subunit, but diff catalytic subunits 18. binding to the surface, delivery to an endosome, and once internalized, a pH change will change conformation and eject the toxin through a pore into the cytoplasm 20 19. endotoxins are attached to the bacteria – ex. LPS 20. our skin and intestinal lining can handle LPS 21. if LPS gets into blood stream, all hell breaks loose 22. immune cells in blood has receptors that senses bacterial invasion 1. if a lot of LPS-containing bacteria, septic shock 2. LPS is a very potent toxin 3. it is an immunopathology – our immune system is trying to prevent getting into bloodstream, and w
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