CSB332 Quiz Review Notes

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Cell and Systems Biology
Francis Bambico

CSB332 Quiz Review Notes Neuron doctrine is the concept that the nervous system is composed of discrete neurons that communicate with each other via synapsesoDiscovered by Santiago Ramon y CajaloConsidered the foundation of modern neuroscienceSynapse is made up of oPresynaptic elementContains synaptic vesicles which house neurotransmitter that is released after vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane oSynaptic cleftGap between presynaptic and postsynaptic elements into which neurotransmitter molecules are releasedoPostsynaptic element Contains receptors embedded in the plasma membrane Types of synapsesoAxosomatic synapseaxon synapses onto a cell body oAxodendritic synapseaxon synapses onto a dendritic spine or dendritic shaftoAxoaxonic synapseaxon synapses onto another axonoCapillaryaxon synapses onto a capillaryoMuscleaxon synapses onto a muscle fiber called NMJCanonical synapse oPresynaptic terminal is in close proximity to the postsynaptic element 11Type 1 synapseType 2 synapseAsymmetric Symmetric Release glutamateRelease GABAResult in an excitatory response in the Result in an inhibitory response in the postsynaptic elementpostsynaptic elementFound on dendritic spines axodendritic Found on dendritic shafts axodendritic synapse and dendritic shafts synapse and cell bodies axosomatic synapseProminent presynaptic dense projectionsLess obvious presynaptic dense projections Round synaptic vesiclesFlattened synaptic vesiclesLarge active zoneSmall active zone eg compartmentalizedWide synaptic cleftNarrow synaptic cleftDense basement membraneModest basement membraneProminent postsynaptic densityLess obvious postsynaptic densityNoncanonical synapse oPresynaptic terminal is not in close proximity to the postsynaptic elementoRelease other neurotransmitters in massive to reach many postsynaptic targetsMagnetic resonance imaging MRI oProduces an anatomical image of the brain oApplication of strong magnetic field Aligns the hydrogen protons in the brain in a parallelantiparallel NS direction Produces a net longitudinal magnetic field vectoroApplication of radiofrequency pulse Disturbs the precession of protons Decreases the net longitudinal magnetic field vectorProduces a horizontaltransverse magnetic field vectoroWithdrawal of radiofrequency pulseReorients the protons towards the longitudinal axisReestablishes the peak net longitudinal magnetic field vector
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