APS104H1 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Van Der Waals Equation, Ideal Gas Law, Isothermal Process
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Open system: Exchange of matter and energy.
Closed system: Exchange of energy but not mass.
Isolated system: No exchange of anything at all.
Adiabatic system: No not allow heat exchange between the system and surroundings.
Isothermal system: Allows exchange of heat b/w system and surroundings.
Zeroth law of thermodynamics: States that if System A is in equilibrium with B and B is in
equilibrium with C then A is also in equilibrium with C.
You have the ideal gas law where you have PV=nRT where P is pressure, V is volume, n is
number of moles, R is the constant, and T is the temperature in Kelvin.
Number of moles is also given by the equation n=
where m is the mass and M is the molar
Also there is the concept of partial pressure where you have:
You have the Van Der Waals equation as well which works for only mixtures:
Another equation which works with the ideal gas law is:
trans=nmkbT where E trans is the kinetic energy transfer
Density of a gas is given by the equation:
Assumptions used whilst solving for ideal gases are that the gas molecules are individual and
they never mix around with their surrounding particles.
First law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
Therefore you get that . What’s added to the system is the
same amount that’s taken out of the surroundings.
Heat is a path function and defines the flow of energy across a system and surroundings. It is
the energy flow caused as a result of changes in temperatures between a system and a
Iso means constant. Therm=temperature, bar=pressure, choric=volume.
Work is the quantity of energy that flows between a system and the surroundings. Work is a
path function and depends on the path in between.
State function is something that depends on the initial and final states of the surroundings
Path function is what depends on the path of the activity
Reversible process is a process that occurs in small intervals. It occurs extremely slowly like
putting small grains of sand on a piston
Irreversible process is a process that occurs really fast and cannot be reversed to its original
Isothermal process is when you have a diathermal barrier in which temperature flow IS
ALLOWED to maintain equilibrium in the system.
Isobaric is where you have constant pressure during the process
Isochoric is where you have constant volume during the process
Adiabatic process is the process where there is NO HEAT TRANSFER allowed between the
system and the surroundings.
Some general purpose equations for this chapter are:
In an IRREVERSIBLE PROCESS REGARDLESS OF BEING ISOTHERMAL AND ADIABATIC, you have
For Isothermal processes:
For irreversible you also have that your Temperature is constant. So,
Hence you have
For an Adiabatic Process:
You also have: Cp=R+Cv
Since, Q=0 for an adiabatic process
Closed system: exchange of energy but not mass. Isolated system: no exchange of anything at all. Adiabatic system: no not allow heat exchange between the system and surroundings. Isothermal system: allows exchange of heat b/w system and surroundings. Zeroth law of thermodynamics: states that if system a is in equilibrium with b and b is in equilibrium with c then a is also in equilibrium with c. You have the ideal gas law where you have pv=nrt where p is pressure, v is volume, n is number of moles, r is the constant, and t is the temperature in kelvin. Number of moles is also given by the equation n= where m is the mass and m is the molar mass. Also there is the concept of partial pressure where you have: You have the van der waals equation as well which works for only mixtures: Another equation which works with the ideal gas law is: