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University of Toronto St. George

POL320Final ExamSemester 2 Summary Notes 19th Century I John Stuart Mill 18061873 II Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 17701831 III Karl Marx 18181883 IV Friedrich Nietzsche 18441900ThemesTurning inwardModernityThe ideological wars of modernityPostmodernism Enlightenment selfconsciousnessworld dominated by darkness lack of lightoptimism progress pushing forward applying reason th 19 C turning inward rise of rationalism new identity modernity reflection drawbacks issues o MillHegelMarxo Nietzschebeginning of postmodernism radically critical of modern world Liberalis Pertaining to Free People 1 Liberal educationnecessary for free people not vocationalusefulexpand horizons better citizen 2 Liberalityvirtue of generosity give freely concreteabstract meaning money time attitude 3 Liberalismpoliticalideologicalfree society Ancient vs Modern Liberty 1 Collectivepolitical vs individualprivatefree from tyranny democracy selfruledetermination express itself in political power join people w politics vs individual vs govt overagainst political power 2 Contingenthistorical vs prepoliticalabstract modern freedomessentially freeMillindividual Hegelwants to reconcile ancient collective community w modernindividualism Marxdebatable Historical Roots of Modern Liberalism 1 Against religious conformity a Freedom of thoughtconscience b Individual rightsfreedoms2 Against absolutism a Freedom from arbitrary incursion from the state b Rule of lawconstitutionalism3 Against ascribed status a Economic freedom b CapitalismReformationreligious dissent Luther breaks priesthood of all believers bible translated into vernacular expands peoples immediate access to religiono Wars of religiontoleration as second best Absolutismpush for freedom against arbitrary incursion from state demand for rule of law o Economic interests new forces achieve status through workpush of capitalism commerceNeoliberalismagainst religious conformity broader notions of individual freedom19th Century LiberalismSpirit of reform Rise of welfare liberalismEquality as a necessary condition of liberty General welfare of society overall utilitarian assessment also lookeducation working conditionsas augmentation of freedom for welfare societyPhilosophical Political Ideological Liberalism 1 Philosophical or moral liberalism natural right liberals Kantians utilitarians Hayekians etc2 Political liberalism civil and political rights for the individual rule of law constitutionalism popular sovereignty Are we all becoming liberals End of history thesis3 Liberalism as ideology social welfare liberals classical liberals conservativesJohn Stuart Mill Pure rationalitynot enough tension bn rationalist utilitarianperson moved by sentimentUtilitarianism1 Consequentialist principle the rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by the goodness or badness of the results that flow from it2 Hedonist principle the only thing that is good in itself is pleasure and the only thing that is bad in itself is pain 3 Egalitarianindividualist principle each shall count as one 4 Aggregative principle seek the greatest happiness for the greatest numberintuitive selfevident costbenefit analysis moral theory hard to escape fact that doesnt start w Kantian principle that ppl cant be used purely as means Mills Misgivings With Utilitarianism Individual is subordinate to group tyranny of the majoritys happinessOmitted aesthetic dimension of life coherence and harmony of a life passion for honour pursuit of noble actions etcindividual vs collective omitted the value of noble life aesthetic greatness poetryhigherlower pleasures Utilitarianism with a TwistPerfectionismQuantity vs quality of pleasureHigher and lower pleasure
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