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CHEM139 exam notes1.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

CHEM139Exam noteson chapters 123578 Chapter 1 Chemistry origins from 3 overlapping conditions Alchemy Medicine and TechnologyDebate of Phlogiston in combustion Lavoisier discovered oxygen and metal oxides and proved Phlogiston theory wrongConvert to appropriate units before solving a problem Density MassVolume gL gcm3Temperature and Heat are not the same Temp is how hot or cold one object is relative to the other KC 2731 Heat is the energy which flows from the object with the higher temp to one that has a lower one Chapter 2 Matter can be classified based on composition Elements Compounds and MixturesElements and compounds are substances substance matter whose composition is fixed Elements consist of only one atom compounds consist of 2 or more elements that are chemically bonded and mixtures consist of two or more substances The law of conservation of mass Mass is conserved because matter cannot be created or destroyed Law of definite composition No matter what its source a particular compound of the same element in the same parts fractions by mass Fraction by mass is how much each element contributes to weightThe law of multiple proportions states that in different compounds of the same elements the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers This is because different numbers of B atoms combine with each A atom in different compoundsDaltons atomic theory explained mass laws by proposing that all matter consisted of indivisible unchangeable atoms of fixed unique massMass is conserved because the elements retain their identities but are combined differently Problems with Daltons model were later solved Cathode Rays showed negative particles existed in all matter Charge and mass of electrons measured Rutherfordproposed of a tiny positive nucleus surrounded by electrons Atomic numberof Protons Mass NumberProtonsNeutrons of Neutrons Mass Atomic Ionic bondstransferring electrons
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