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Finals Exam Study sheet: all topics from beginning of semester to electrochemistry

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University of Toronto St. George

CHM139HS Final Exam Study Sheet P a g 1 Elements and Periodic Table - Intensive property o Values do not change with different amount of sample (eg. Temperature) - Extensive property o Values that change depending on amount of sample (eg. Volume) - Absolute zero at 0K o -237.15 degrees Celsius - Recall (aka you should know) o SI units o Nomenclature o Balancing equations - Law of Mass conservation o Mass of reaction is conserved - Law of Definite Proportions o Pure substance has same ratio of elements - Law of Multiple Proportions o Elements make compounds with mass ratios of whole number multiples (no Oxygen in an element) - Empirical formula o Simplest whole number ratio - Molecular formula o Exact formula Photons and Frequency of Light - where h is Plancks constant (will be given) MW 2011 CHM139HS Final Exam Study Sheet P a g e2 - Binding energy is amount of energy that must be given to particle to shoot it out of its orbit - Kinetic energy of the left over energy after particle has left orbit - - Quantum numbers - n: row of periodic table (1, 2, 3...) - l: spdf orbital (0, 1, 2...) - m: magnetic number (0, 1, 2...) - m : magnetic spin ( 12) s - Pauli exclusion principle o Each electron in atom must have different quantum numbers - Aufban rule o Lower energy level orbitals fill up first - Hunds rule o The most stable orbital favouring is unpaired - Chemical Bonds - Cation radius decreases with charge - Anion radius increases with charge - Ionization energy o Energy needed to remove electron from highest energy level (when atom is neutral and gasous) - Electron Affinity o Energy released when atom gains an electron when in gasous state - Ionic bonds MW 2011
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