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# Chemistry Midterm Review Notes The following are the review notes with essential formulas and important key points that will help you pass the midterm. I made summaries like these for the test and quizes of this course and ended up getting pretty good ma

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University of Toronto St. George

Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

APS104H1

Edgar Acosta

Winter

Description

Chapter 1
Open system: Exchange of matter and energy.
Closed system: Exchange of energy but not mass.
Isolated system: No exchange of anything at all.
Adiabatic system: No not allow heat exchange between the system and surroundings.
Isothermal system: Allows exchange of heat b/w system and surroundings.
Zeroth law of thermodynamics: States that if System A is in equilibrium with B and B is in
equilibrium with C then A is also in equilibrium with C.
You have the ideal gas law where you have PV=nRT where P is pressure, V is volume, n is
number of moles, R is the constant, and T is the temperature in Kelvin.
Number of moles is also given by the equation n= where m is the mass and M is the molar
mass.
Also there is the concept of partial pressure where you have:
=
You have the Van Der Waals equation as well which works for only mixtures:
Another equation which works with the ideal gas law is:
PV=nRT=n m trans m b where E trans is the kinetic energy transfer
Density of a gas is given by the equation:
Assumptions used whilst solving for ideal gases are that the gas molecules are individual and
they never mix around with their surrounding particles.
1 Chapter 2
First law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
Therefore you get that . What’s added to the system is the
same amount that’s taken out of the surroundings.
Heat is a path function and defines the flow of energy across a system and surroundings. It is
the energy flow caused as a result of changes in temperatures between a system and a
surrounding.
Iso means constant. Therm=temperature, bar=pressure, choric=volume.
Work is the quantity of energy that flows between a system and the surroundings. Work is a
path function and depends on the path in between.
State function is something that depends on the initial and final states of the surroundings
Path function is what depends on the path of the activity
Reversible process is a process that occurs in small intervals. It occurs extremely slowly like
putting small grains of sand on a piston
Irreversible process is a process that occurs really fast and cannot be reversed to its original
state
Isothermal process is when you have a diathermal barrier in which temperature flow IS
ALLOWED to maintain equilibrium in the system.
Isobaric is where you have constant pressure during the process
Isochoric is where you have constant volume during the process
Adiabatic process is the process where there is NO HEAT TRANSFER allowed between the
system and the surroundings.
Some general purpose equations for this chapter are:
2 In an IRREVERSIBLE PROCESS REGARDLESS OF BEING ISOTHERMAL AND ADIABATIC, you have
For Isothermal processes:
Reversible:
Irreversible:
( )
∫
For irreversible you also have that your Temperature is constant. So,
Hence you have
For an Adiabatic Process:
Reversible:
You also have: Cp=R+Cv
Since, Q=0 for an adiabatic process
Irreversible:
( )
∫
3 Since, Q=0 for an adiabatic process
You have to usually find the final temperature given from the conditions in the process.
For an isochoric process:
Constant Volume
You have no work.
For an isobaric process:
Constant Pressure
4 Chapter 4
Endothermic reactions: The reactions that absorb and have a positive Q and Positive
Exothermic reactions: The reactions that release and have a negative Q and positive
For constant T and P, the heat is For constant T and V, the heat is
Standard state: The state of a reaction/reactants/products at 298K and 1atm 1 bar
Vapourization is the change from liquid to gas; Fusion is from solid to liquid
There aren’t that many formulas for this chapter but essentially all about Enthalpy
To calculate the This is at standard state
The values of are available in tables.
The Enthalpy at nonstandard state and variable temperatures:
∫
In calculating you use Hess’ Law of heats of formation. You look up the equations in the
tables and you from the reactants and products via that. You multiply theaccordingly by
the stoichiometric powers and you flip the signs if you flip the equations around. You have to
make sure that when you add up the equations, you get the exact same equation as what you
wanted to form.
Relationship between
For mean bond energies, you draw organic diagrams and count the bonds and add up
accordingly.
For Hess’ law, look up for comp

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