[CHM139H1] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 47 pages long Study Guide!

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UTSG
CHM139H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1
1.1: The Scientific Method in a Chemical Context Improved Pharmaceutical Insulin
Diabetes is caused by inadequate production and/or use of insulin
o A hooe ioled i the ods etaolis of gluose
o High blood glucose levels can lead to severe long-term consequences:
Cardiovascular disease
Kidney failure
Blindness
Large increases in blood-glucose levels: HYPERGLYCEMIA
o Failure to adhere insulin 30 minutes prior to a meal
Low blood-glucose levels: HYPOGLYCEMIA
o Can cause confusion, unconsciousness, and seizures
Ieased stailit esults fo aggegatio of isuli ooes sigle oleule ito
heaes lustes of  isuli oleules
Heaes dissoiate eak apat ito ooes as isuli eoes diluted i the
body
*Note: Only the monomeric form can enter the cell by crossing the capillary membrane
Causes a time lag in bioavailability
Peak concentration occurs 2-4 hours after injection
The Scientific Method
Scientific Method: process involving the formulation of questions and conjectures
arising from observations, careful design of experiments, and thoughtful analysis of
results.
o Involves identifying ways to test the validity of new ideas
o Seldom is there one way to go about it
The main elements of the scientific method are:
o Observations: a systematic recording of natural phenomena and maybe
qualitative (descriptive in nature), or quantitative (involving measurements)
o Hypothesis: a possible explanation for the observation developed based upon
facts collected (from previous experiments) and scientific knowledge and
intuition.
o Experiment: a procedure to test the hypothesis, while changing are variable at a
time while the others remain constant
o Theory: a unifying principle that explains experimental results and predicts new
outcomes
*Note: All a theory can do is provide the best explanation that we can come up with at the
present time.
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Visualizing Chemical Behaviour with Molecular Models
Chemists often make use of molecular models to help develop a theory and to visualize
structure-function relationships
Molecular Models: simplified versions of the way atoms are connected and reveal their
3D arrangement
1.2: Experimentation and Measurement
Seven fundamental SI units of measure:
o Mass: Kilogram (kg)
o Length: Meter (m)
o Temperature: Kelvin (K)
o Amount of Substance: Mole (mol)
o Time: Second (s)
o Electric Current: Ampere (A)
o Luminous Intensity: Candela (cd)
Prefixes for Multiples of SI Units:
Factor
Prefix
Symbol
1,000,000,000,000 = 10^12
Tera
T
1,000,000,000 = 10^9
Giga
G
1,000,000 = 10^6
Mega
M
1,000 = 10^3
Kilo
k
100 = 10^2
Hecto
h
10 = 10^1
Deka
da
0.1 = 10^-1
Deci
d
0.01 = 10^-2
Centi
c
0.001 = 10^-3
Milli
m
0.000001 = 10^-6
Micro
0.000000001 = 10^-9
Nano
n
0.000000000001 = 10^-12
Pico
p
0.000000000000001 = 10^-15
Femto
f
1.3: Mass and its Measurement
Mass: the amount of matter in an object
o Measured in kilograms (kg)
o Standard kilogram is set as the mass of a cylindrical bar of platinum-iridium alloy
stored in a vault
o Idepedet of a ojets loatio
Matter: anything with a physical presence; anything you can touch, taste or smell;
anything that has a mass
Weight: The force with which gravity pulls on an object
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