[CHM135H1] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (21 pages long!)

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UTSG
CHM135H1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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1.1!THE&SCIENTIFIC&METHOD&IN&A&CHEMICAL&CONTEXT:&IMPROVED&PHARMACEUTICAL&INSULIN&
!Diabetes&
o!Caused&by&an&inadequate&production&and/or&use&of&insulin&which&is&a&hormone&
involved&in&the&body’s&metabolism&of&glucose&
o!High&glucose&levels&–&can&lead&to&sever&long‐term&consequences&‐>&cardiovascular&
disease,&kidney&failure,&blindness&
!Insulin&–&discovered&in&1921&
o!Initially&produced&by&extracting&it&from&the&pancreas&glands&of&pigs/cattle&
o!1980’s&–&recombinant&DNA&technology&was&used&to&make&enough&human&insulin&
to&treat&a&large&number&of&patients&worldwide&
!Limitations&to&the&use&of&insulin&as&a&drug&
o!After&one&eats,&the&peak&in&insulin&concentration&in&a&non‐diabetic&is&sharper&and&
faster&than&the&peak&after&injection&of&insulin&‐>&2&problems&
!Insulin&doses&depend&on&the&quantity&and&type&of&food&eaten&&
!Injections&must&be&given&30&minutes&before&a&meal&
!Injected&insulin&will&act&to&lower&blood&glucose&long&after&food&is&digested&
therefore&diabetics&must&take&care&to&avoid&dangerous&low&blood&sugar&
events&(hypoglycemia)&–&can&cause&confusion,&unconsciousness&&
!Insulin&
o!The&hexamers&dissociate&into&monomers&as&insulin&becomes&diluted&into&the&
body&‐>&the&monomers&can&enter&the&cell&by&crossing&the&capillary&membrane&‐>&
causes&a&time&lag&in&bioavailability&‐>&peak&concentration&occurs&2‐4&hours&after&
injection&
The&Scientific&Method&
!Scientific&method&–&an&iterative&process&involving&the&formulation&of&questions&and&
conjectures&arising&from&observations,&careful&design&of&experiments&and&thoughtful&
analysis&of&results;&involves&identifying&ways&to&test&validity&of&new&ideas&&
!Main&elements&of&the&scientific&method:&
o!Observations&–&quantitative/qualitative&
o!Hypothesis&–&must&be&testable&with&an&experiment&
o!Experiment&–&a&procedure&for&testing&the&hypothesis&
o!Theory&–&developed&from&a&hypothesis;&can&never&be&absolutely&proven&but&can&
provide&the&best&explanation&that&we&can&come&up&with&at&the&present&time&
!General&hypothesis&of&insulin&–&the&chemical&structure&of&insulin&was&responsible&for&
aggregation&and&modifying&it&could&change&properties&
!Peptides&–&molecules&that&consist&of&molecules&called&amino&acids&that&are&linked&
together&in&a&chain&
o!Ex:&human&insulin&and&human&hormone&called&insulin‐like&growth&factor&1&(IGF‐1)&
Visualizing&Chemical&Behavior&with&Molecular&Models&
!Molecular&models&–&simplified&versions&of&the&way&atoms&are&connected&and&reveal&their&
3D&arrangement&&
&
&
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1.2!EXPERIMENTATION&AND&MEASUREMENT&
!SI&–&the&International&System&of&Units&for&measurement&that&is&used&by&scientist&
throughout&the&world;&based&on&the&metric&system&&
o!7&fundamental&units&–&mass,%length,%temperature,&amount&of&substance,&time,&
electric&current,&luminous&intensity&
!SI&units&are&modified&through&the&use&of&prefixes&when&they&refer&to&either&a&smaller&or&
larger&quantities&&
o!Milli&–&means&one‐thousandth&(1/1000&of&1&meter)&
o!Kilo&–&means&one‐thousand&(1000&meters)&
!Scientific&notation&–&exponential&format&to&write&numbers&that&are&very&large&or&small&
o!Ex:&55,000&=&5.5x10^4&
&
1.3!MASS&AND&ITS&MEASUREMENT&&
!Mass&–&the&amount&of&matter&in&an&object;&measured&in&SI&units&by&the&kilogram&
o!1kg&=&2.205&lbs&
o!gram:&1g&=&0.001kg&
o!milligram:&1mg&=&0.001g&=&10^‐6&kg&
o!microgram:&1ug&=&0.001&mg&=&10^‐6&g&=&10^‐9&kg&
!Matter&–&anything&with&a&physical&presence&(touch,&taste,&smell)&
!Mass&and&weight&have&different&meanings&
o!Mass&–&a&physical&property&that&measures&the&amount&of&matter&in&an&object;&
independent&of&an&object’s&location&
o!Weight&–&measures&the&force&with&which&gravity&pulls&on&an&object;&depends&on&
an&object’s&location&
&
1.4!LENGTH&AND&ITS&MEASUREMENT&&
!Meter&–&standard&unit&of&length&in&the&SI&system&
o!1&meter&=&39.37&inches&
!Common&used&measurements&
o!Centimeter:&1cm&=&0.01m&
o!Millimeter:&1mm&=&0.001m&
o!Micrometer:&1um&=&10^‐6m&
o!Nanometer:&1nm&=&10^‐9m&
o!Pico&meter:&1pm&=&10^‐12m&
&
1.5!TEMPERATURE&AND&ITS&MEASUREMENT&&
!Celsius&degree&is&slowly&replacing&the&degree&Fahrenheit&as&the&common&unit&for&
temperature&measurement&however,&the&kelvin&has&replaced&both&
!Celsius&and&kelvin&are&the&same&but&the&numbers&assigned&to&various&points&on&the&scales&
differ&
o!Celsius:&assigns&a&value&of&0&°C&to&the&freezing&point&of&water&and&100&°C&to&the&
boiling&point&of&water&
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