# CHM135H1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 296 pages long!)

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UTSG
CHM135H1
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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CHM135 - Lecture 2 - Periodicity and Atomic Structure
Topics
light & the electromagnetic spectrum
the Plank equation
the de Broglie equation
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
quantum numbers
shapes of orbitals
quantum mechanics & atomic structure
multielectron atoms
periodic properties
The periodic table
Periodicity-recurring trends that are seen in element properties
Caused by: predictable variations in element atomic structure
General trends
Red: ionization energy (energy required to remove an electron from an ion or
gaseous atom) & electronegativity (tendency of atom to attract a bonding pair of
electrons)
Certain groups of elements behave similarly
Grp. 8: noble gases
Grp. 1: alkali metals
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Complete EM spectrum is a continuous spectrum
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Electromagnetic waves (radiation) consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields,
perpendicular to each other and direction of propagation
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Wavelength ()-distance the light travels in 1 cycle; difference between 2 consecutive
peaks (m or nm)
Frequency (v)- # of wave cycles completed in each second (Hz)
Amplitude (A)= height measured from centre of the wave; height of middle to top
= intensity
Wavelength x Frequency = Speed : v = c
Speed of light: c = 3.00 x 8m/s
Electromagnetic Spectrum- Example question
An FM radio station transmits its signal at 88.1 MHz.What is the wavelength of the radio
signal?
Gie: ν= . MHz = . ×6Hz
=c/v
= . 8/
88. ×6/=3.40m
Wavelength and Frequency
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