CHM135H1 Final: CHM135H Winter 2018 Final Exam Review(1)

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12 Feb 2019
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CHM135H
Chemistry - Physical Principles
Winter 2018
Final Exam Review
Anlong Jiang
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CHM135HChemistry:PhysicalPrinciples
Winter2018FinalExamReview
1
Copyright©TalentEducationJIANG,Anlong
STATEFUNCTION
Thestatefunctionisafunctionorpropertywhosevaluedependsonlyonthepresentstate,orcondition,ofthe
system,notonthepathusedtoreachthatstate.
∆x = xinitial‐xfinal
1. Conceptofenergy
a. Conservationofenergy:Energycannotbecreatedordestroyed,anditcanonlybeconverted
fromoneformtoanother.
b. Changeofenergy:
i. Work(Notastatefunction):
w= F×ds
Expansionwork:Workdoneastheresultofavolumechangeinthesystem.
w=‐P∆V
w:Work(J)
 P:Exertingpressure(Unitsvary)
 ΔV:Changeofvolume(L)
ii. Heat(NOTastatefunction)
2. Thermodynamicproperties
a. Intensiveproperties
i. Definition:ThepropertiesthatareNOTadditivewhenequilibriumsystemsare
combined.
ii. Examples:temperature,density,meltingpoint,etc.
b. Extensiveproperties:
i. Thepropertiesthatareadditivewhensystemsarecombined.
ii. Examples:mass,volume,energy,etc.
3. Equilibriumthermodynamicstate
a. Definition:Propertieswhichspecifythestatedonotchangeintime.
b. Examples:Pressure,temperature,volumeetc.
c. Thermodynamicstandardstate(denotedwitha°):Moststableformofasubstanceat1atm
pressureandataspecifiedtemperature(usually25°C);1Mconcentrationofallsubstancesin
solution.
4. Typesofthermodynamicsystems
a. Open:Mass,heat,workcanbeexchangedbetweensystemsandsurroundings.
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CHM135HChemistry:PhysicalPrinciples
Winter2018FinalExamReview
2
Copyright©TalentEducationJIANG,Anlong
b. Closed:Heatandworkcanbeexchangedotherthanmass
c. Adiabatic:Heatcannotbeexchanged.
d. Isolated:Noexchange.
Surrounding
System
±n
+Δq -Δq
-Δw +Δw
Surrounding
System
+Δq -Δq
-Δw +Δw
Surrounding
System
-Δw +Δw
Surrounding
System
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