CHM139H1 Midterm: Complete and Comprehensive 26- Page Midterm#2 Study Guide - Winter 2016

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Published on 17 Mar 2016
School
UTSG
Department
Chemistry
Course
CHM135H1
Professor
University of Toronto (St.George)
CHM139 – Chemistry: Physical Principles
Professor: Tihana Mirkovic
Midterm 2
Exam Guide
Topics Included:
1. Introduction to Chemical Kinetics
2. Rate Law and Half-Life
3. Reaction Mechanisms
4. Effect of Temperature and Catalysts
5. Introduction to Chemical Equilibrium
6. Reaction Direction and Le Chatelier’s Principle
7. Practical Implications of Chemical Equilibria
8. Acids and Bases
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Unit 3 Kinetics: Rates of Chemical Reactions and Mechanism
Part 1: Introduction to Chemical Kinetics
1.1 Kinetics
Thermodynamics explains why reactions takes place, but does not explain how a reaction
takes place
Kinetics explains how reactions take place, but does
not explain why reactions take place
Spontaneous processes happen by themselves
o For example C (diamond) C (graphite) but
the process is slow and takes millions of years
Kinetics explains:
o How a reactions occurs
o How quickly it occurs
1.2 Rate of Reaction
When given a graph of concentration vs. time, you can measure rate from the graph
Best place to measure rate is at the beginning of the reaction (t = 0)
o Biggest slope
o At t = 0, [concentration] of reactant is known
o No products to slow net reaction
Rate depends upon:
o Concentration of reactants
Higher the [concentration] of reactants more collisions
o Temperature
o Presence of a catalyst
Important notes:
Rate of reaction how long a reaction takes to progress
o You will want to be able to measure rate
o Unit changes in concentration per unit time
Example
2NO2Cl 2NO2 + Cl2
Instantaneous rate = d[Cl2] / dt
= 1d[NO2] / 2dt
= - 1d[NO2Cl] / 2dt disappearance of reactants
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Past Exam Question:
For the reaction N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g),
a) the rate at which N2 and H2 reactants are consumed must be the same as the rate at which the NH3
product is formed.
b) the rate of formation of NH3 is not related to the rate of composition of N2 by their reaction coefficients.
c) the rate at which H2 is consumed is two thirds of the rate at which NH3 is formed.
d) the rate at which NH3 is produced is twice the rate at which N2 is consumed.
e) the rate at which NH3 is produced is one half of the rate at which N2 is consumed.
Answer: You can tell by looking at the coefficients of the reaction. -d[N2] / dt = 2d[NH3] / dt
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