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Final

Finals Exam Study sheet: all topics from beginning of semester to electrochemistry

12 Pages
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHM135H1
Professor
Wheeler

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CHM139HS Final Exam Study Sheet
Pa g e | 1
Elements and Periodic Table
-Intensive property
oValues do not change with different amount of sample (eg. Temperature)
-Extensive property
oValues that change depending on amount of sample (eg. Volume)
-Absolute zero at 0K
o-237.15 degrees Celsius
-Recall (aka you should know)
oSI units
oNomenclature
oBalancing equations
-Law of Mass conservation
oMass of reaction is conserved
-Law of Definite Proportions
oPure substance has same ratio of elements
-Law of Multiple Proportions
oElements make compounds with mass ratios of whole number multiples
(no ½ Oxygen in an element)
-Empirical formula
oSimplest whole number ratio
-Molecular formula
oExact formula
Photons and Frequency of Light
- where h is Plancks constant (will be given)
MW 2011
www.notesolution.com
CHM139HS Final Exam Study Sheet
Pa g e | 2
-Binding energy is amount of energy that must be given to particle to shoot it out
of its orbit
-Kinetic energy of the left over energy after particle has left orbit
-   
-Quantum numbers
-n: row of periodic table (1, 2, 3...)
-l: spdf orbital (0, 1, 2...)
-m: magnetic number (0, ±1, ±2...)
-ms: magnetic spin (±1/2)
-Pauli exclusion principle
oEach electron in atom must have different quantum numbers
-Aufban rule
oLower energy level orbitals fill up first
-Hunds rule
oThe most stable orbital favouring is unpaired
-Chemical Bonds
-Cation radius decreases with charge
-Anion radius increases with charge
-Ionization energy
oEnergy needed to remove electron from highest energy level (when atom
is neutral and gasous)
-Electron Affinity
oEnergy released when atom gains an electron when in gasous state
-Ionic bonds
MW 2011
www.notesolution.com
CHM139HS Final Exam Study Sheet
Pa g e | 3
oBetween atom with small positive ionization energy and
oWith atom with large negative electron affinity
-Electronegativity
oHow much an element attracts bonding electrons
oIf Ee- > 2.4 ionic
oIf Ee- < 2.4 covalent non-polar
oIf Ee- is between covalent polar
-Gases
-Pressure is force over area (will be given hopefully)
-760mmHg = 1atm
-1atm=101 325Pa
-Kinetic molecular theory of gas
oParticles are point masses
oMasses separated by distance
oCollisions are rapid and elastic
oNo external force
oTotal energy constant
-Idea gas law:
oBased on work by Boyle, Charles and Avogadro
-Partial pressure law
oIn a container the total pressure is equal to the sum of the pressure that
each different gas holds
-Van-der waal equation has volume correction constants
-1 mole of gas at STP takes up 22.4L
MW 2011
www.notesolution.com

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Description
CHM139HS Final Exam Study Sheet P a g 1 Elements and Periodic Table - Intensive property o Values do not change with different amount of sample (eg. Temperature) - Extensive property o Values that change depending on amount of sample (eg. Volume) - Absolute zero at 0K o -237.15 degrees Celsius - Recall (aka you should know) o SI units o Nomenclature o Balancing equations - Law of Mass conservation o Mass of reaction is conserved - Law of Definite Proportions o Pure substance has same ratio of elements - Law of Multiple Proportions o Elements make compounds with mass ratios of whole number multiples (no Oxygen in an element) - Empirical formula o Simplest whole number ratio - Molecular formula o Exact formula Photons and Frequency of Light - where h is Plancks constant (will be given) MW 2011 www.notesolution.com CHM139HS Final Exam Study Sheet P a g e2 - Binding energy is amount of energy that must be given to particle to shoot it out of its orbit - Kinetic energy of the left over energy after particle has left orbit - - Quantum numbers - n: row of periodic table (1, 2, 3...) - l: spdf orbital (0, 1, 2...) - m: magnetic number (0, 1, 2...) - m : magnetic spin ( 12) s - Pauli exclusion principle o Each electron in atom must have different quantum numbers - Aufban rule o Lower energy level orbitals fill up first - Hunds rule o The most stable orbital favouring is unpaired - Chemical Bonds - Cation radius decreases with charge - Anion radius increases with charge - Ionization energy o Energy needed to remove electron from highest energy level (when atom is neutral and gasous) - Electron Affinity o Energy released when atom gains an electron when in gasous state - Ionic bonds MW 2011 www.notesolution.com
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