CHM139H1 Final: Complete and Comprehensive 70-Page Final Exam Study Guide - Winter 2016

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Published on 11 Apr 2016
School
UTSG
Department
Chemistry
Course
CHM135H1
Professor
University of Toronto (St. George)
CHM139 - Chemistry: Physical Principles
Professor: Kristine Quinlan
Final Exam
Complete Exam Guide
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Topics Included:
1. Review of Fundamental Concepts
2. Quantum Mechanics
3. States of Matter: Solids
4. States of Matter: Liquids
5. States of Matter: Gases
6. Solutions
7. Introduction to Chemical Kinetics
8. Rate Law and Half-Life
9. Reaction Mechanisms
10. Effect of Temperature and Catalysts
11. Introduction to Chemical Equilibrium
12. Reaction Direction and Le Chatelier’s Principle
13. Practical Implications of Chemical Equilibria
14. Acids and Bases
15. Introduction to Thermodynamics, Work, Heat and Enthalpy
16. Heat Capacity, Calorimetry and Hess’s Law
17. Standard Enthalpies of Formation and Bond Dissociation Energies
18. Entropy and Spontaneity
19. Gibbs Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium
20. Introduction to Electrochemistry, Redox Reactions and Galvanic Cells
21. Standard Cell Potential and Standard Reduction Potential
22. Free Energy, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics
23. Electrolysis
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Unit 1: Chapters 1-5
Part 1 Review of Fundamental Concepts
1.1 Measurements and Observations
Measurements contain number and scale
Units are very important when plugging values into equations and formulas as you need to
make sure that you are using standard units
Accuracy and precision are two different concepts that you should not confuse with one another
Accuracy how close the measurement is to the true value
Precision how close repeated measurements are to each other
Keep in mind that all measurements are subject to error so use significant figures (sig figs)
because they reflect the precision of the measurement
oSignificant figures are the total number of digits in the measurement
Matter is anything that has both mass and volume
Mixtures are two or more substances mixed without chemically altering components and there
are two types:
oHeterogeneous mixture not uniform
oHomogeneous mixture same throughout
Important notes:
Units can be a hint to getting the right answer to a problem through dimensional
analysis (unit conversion) because if you get the right units for the answer, it shows
that you have plugged in the right values (however it does not mean that the answer
is correct!)
Measurement unit A × (x unit B ÷ y unit A)
conversion factor
Ex: At 20°C, the density of water is 0.9978g/ml. What volume will be occupied by
1.75kg of water at this temperature?
Solution: 1.75kg × (1000g ÷ 1kg) × (1mL ÷ 0.9978g/mL) = 1.75×103mL
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