Notes for Solubility lab

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31 Dec 2010
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CHM138H Labs
1. Solubility: like dissolves like
…and intermolecular forces
When the interaction of the solvent molecules with the molecules of a compound X are similar to, or
stronger than, the intermolecular forces between molecules of X, then X will dissolve.
Hydrogen bond formation – strongest; H interacting with neighbouring molecules’ O, N, F, Cl
…in water
Insoluble: purely carbon-and-hydrogen compounds, interior heteroatom compounds so dipole
moments cancel, organo-halides
In homologous series, 5-carbon member last water-soluble
Compact hydrocarbon more water-soluble than branched framework
Salt formation – to overcome 5-carbon barrier with charged functional group
oR-COOH [carboxylic acid] reacting with NaOH [base]
Ar-OH reacting with NaHCO
3
[base] creates bubbles
oAr-OH [phenol] reacting with NaOH [base]
Ar-OH cannot react with NaHCO
3
[base]
oR-NH
2
/R
2
NH/R
3
N [base] reacting with HCl [acid]
2. Recrystallization: purifying solids
… and melting points
3. Extraction
4. Distillation
5. Computation
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Document Summary

And intermolecular forces: when the interaction of the solvent molecules with the molecules of a compound x are similar to, or stronger than, the intermolecular forces between molecules of x, then x will dissolve. Hydrogen bond formation strongest; h interacting with neighbouring molecules" o, n, f, cl. Insoluble: purely carbon-and-hydrogen compounds, interior heteroatom compounds so dipole moments cancel, organo-halides. Salt formation to overcome 5-carbon barrier with charged functional group: r-cooh [carboxylic acid] reacting with naoh [base] o. Ar-oh cannot react with nahco3 [base: r-nh2/r2nh/r3n [base] reacting with hcl [acid, recrystallization: purifying solids.

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