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Notes for Solubility lab


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHM136H1
Professor
D.Zamble

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CHM138H Labs
1. Solubility: like dissolves like
…and intermolecular forces
When the interaction of the solvent molecules with the molecules of a compound X are similar to, or
stronger than, the intermolecular forces between molecules of X, then X will dissolve.
Hydrogen bond formation – strongest; H interacting with neighbouring molecules’ O, N, F, Cl
…in water
Insoluble: purely carbon-and-hydrogen compounds, interior heteroatom compounds so dipole
moments cancel, organo-halides
In homologous series, 5-carbon member last water-soluble
Compact hydrocarbon more water-soluble than branched framework
Salt formation – to overcome 5-carbon barrier with charged functional group
oR-COOH [carboxylic acid] reacting with NaOH [base]
Ar-OH reacting with NaHCO
3
[base] creates bubbles
oAr-OH [phenol] reacting with NaOH [base]
Ar-OH cannot react with NaHCO
3
[base]
oR-NH
2
/R
2
NH/R
3
N [base] reacting with HCl [acid]
2. Recrystallization: purifying solids
… and melting points
3. Extraction
4. Distillation
5. Computation
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