CIV 342 midtern review note.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Civil Engineering
Robert Andrews

CIV 342 Overview: - use of water: domestic, recreational, agricultural, industrial. - Sources of water: groundwater, surface water, reclaimed water. - Multiple barrier approach: monitoring SW protection -> treatment -> distribution -> comsumers - Water treatment objective: safe for human -> colour and odour, appealing to customer -> operate at reasonable costs. - Water treatment removal: 1,pathogenic organism 2, suspended material 3, hazardous contaminants 4, odour, unpleasant tastes and colour. - Waste water treatment objective: 1, removal of suspended and floatable material 2, treatment of biodegradable organics, 3,elimination of pathogenic organism 4, removal of nutrient. 5 removal of toxic compound. - TDI: tolerable daily intake is the amount of a substance that can be comsumed from all sources each day by an adult without risk. - Disinfection: destroy pathogenic organisms - Threshold: a level below which adverse effects will not occur. - Carcinogen: some possibility of harm, no threshold level - 2 approach for deriving guideline: 1, chemical with toxic effects. 2, carcinogenic substance. - Water quality parameters Class: 1, physical, chemical, microbiological, radiological. - Turbidity: reduction in clarity - Solid: filterable, nonfilterable, volatile solid burn at 600 - True color: true color, apparent color - Odour: due to biological activity - Chemical characteristics: alkalinity, hardness, nitrogen, heavy metal. - Organics:carbonhydrates, oil, fat Water treatment methods - contaminant remove by: physical, chemical, biological - physical unit operation: (apply physical force)1, screening 2,mixing 3, gas transfer 4. Sedimentation. 5 filtration - chemical unit operation: (chemical addition) 1.chemical precipitation 2. Adsorption 3. Disinfection - biological unit operation: remove biodegradable substances, convert into gasees and biological cell tissue. - Include: biological filtration, activated sludge treatment, anaerobic digestion. - Drinking water treatment: 1. Screening 2.pre-sedimentaion (alum) 3.chemical treatment (chlorine) 4. Aerarion - Coagulation: add chemical particle come together. (coagulant: alum, ferric chloride, lime) - Flocculation: particles growth. - Filtration: sand or mix media filters - Disinfection: ensure control of pathogenic organisms. - Sources of sludge: 1, chemical coagulation, precipitation, softening removed in sedimentation tanks 2. Filter backwash - Disposal sludge: 1,discharge to municipal sewer 2,air drying 3,centrifugation 4, pressure filtration 5 chemical recovery (ultimately to landfill) - Watershed management: 1. Limit access 2.limit discharge 3. Pretreat water (algae blooms) - Water in lake influenced by: 1. Climatic conditions 2. Seasonal changes (spring runoff) - Wastewater types: 1. Sanitary 2. Industrial 3. Stormwater 4. Infiltration - Purpose of wastewater treatment: reduction of solid concentration and BOD - Wastewater treatment method: pretreatment, primary sedimentation, secondary biological stabilization, tertiary - Pretreatment: 1. Screening ( bar screen, remove rocks) 2.comminution (grind solid) 3.grit removal (sand, gravel by reducing water velocity ) 4. Flow measurement 5. Pumping - Primary sedimentation: removes suspended matter by reducing water velocity, removes 30-50% of suspended solids, removes a portion of organic matter. - Secondary sedimentation: removes biodegradable organics and suspended matter not removed by primary treatment. - Secondary treatment including: 1. Activated sludge 2. Fixed film reactors 3. Lagoons. (BRC: rotating biological contact) - Tertiary treatment: nutrient removal to reduce eutrophication - Tertiary treatment including: 1. Chemical addition alum 2. Special biological processes 3. disinfection Sedimentation - Sedimentation: use gravity to separate suspended material from water. Basin large enough allow particle hit the bottom. Factor: 1. Particle size. 2.expected flow ra
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