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CLA201H1 Final: CLA201 complete lecture and textbook summary study notes

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A combining vowel is used b/w two roots of a compound word in order to join them. The
vowels commonly used are o and i.
Assimilation: when certain prefixes ending in a consonant are attached to words beginning with a
consonant, the consonant of the prefix is often changed to either
The same consonant the root begins with
Or to another consonant more easily pronounced in combination with the consonant the root
begins with
a-/ab-/abs- = away from, off
e.g. abstain, abduct, aberrant
ad- = (often assimilated) to, toward, near
e.g. = afferent, adduct, accord, acquire, assimilation, agglutination, aggregation, appreciation
ambi- = both, on both sides, around
e.g. ambidextrous, ambivalent, ambiguous, ambulate
ante- = before, forward
e.g. antecedent, antegrade
antero-/anterior = before, front/forward part of
e.g. anteroinferior
bi-/bis-/bin- = twice, twofold
e.g. bifurcate, binoculars, bisphosphate, bicycle
co-/col-/com- before b, m, p, con-/cor- = with, together, (completely)
e.g. coordinate, coalesce, community, concur, conspecific, congregate, corrugate, converge,
contra-/counter- often before vowels = opposite, against
e.g. contralateral, counterintuitive
de- = (down) from, undoing
e.g. descent, denounce, depart, deconstruct, devalue, depreciation, detach, depress, deform
demi- = half, part
e.g. demigod, demilune
dis-/dif-/di- = apart from, asunder, separation, removal
e.g. discover, disparate, distinct, dissimilar, different, diverge, discord, divide
e-/ef- before f/ex- = out (of), forth, off
e.g. evacuate, emit, efferent, efflux, extrude, export, expel, explosion, excrement
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extra-/extro = on the outside, beyond, outer
e.g. extracellular, extraneous, extraordinary, extrovert, extraterrestrial
in-/im-/ir- = in(to)
e.g. immersion, immigration, inoculate, implosion, import, influx, irradiate, inject
in-/il-/im-/ir- = not
e.g. inedible, inappropriate, indistinct, illegal, illegible, impotent, improper, irrational,
infra- = below, lower
e.g. infrastructure
inter- = between
e.g. intermediate, intermittent, interrupt, intercellular
intra- = within, inside
e.g. intracellular, intravenous
intro- = within, inward
e.g. introspection, introduction
juxta- = beside, next/near to
e.g. juxtaposition
non- = not
e.g. nonflammable, nonsynonymous
ob-/o-/oc-/op-/of- = in the way, over, against
e.g. objection, obfuscate, obscure, oppression, ostensible, offend, omit, occupy, occlude, oppose
per-/pel- = through, throughout, thoroughly
e.g. permeable, perfect, pellucid, perfuse
post- = after, behind
e.g. postgraduate, postapocalyptic, postpone, posthumous
postero- = behind
e.g. posterosuperior
prae-/pre- = before, in front of
e.g. preformation, precede, prepubescent, prefix, premise, prequel
praeter-/preter- = beyond, past, more than
e.g. preternatural
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pro- = before, in front of, front part of, forth
e.g. proposition, proffer, protuberance, promotion, prologue, produce, profuse, progression
re-/red- = again, back
e.g. redirect, reverse, regression, relapse, regain
retro- = backward
e.g. retrograde, retrospect, retroactive
se- = apart, free from
e.g. segregation, separate
semi- = half, somewhat
e.g. semicircle, semiformal, semidecent
sub-/suf-/sup-/sus-/suc- = under, below, up from below, near
e.g. subcutaneous, subvert, subscript, suffice, suppress, supply, suspend, sustain, succeed
super- (sur-) = over, above, excessively
e.g. superscript, superhero, supernatant, surcharge, surprise
supra- = above, upon
e.g. supracostal
trans-/tran- often before s = across
e.g. transverse, transmit, transfer, transform, transduce, translucent, transdimensional
ultra-/ultro- = beyond, excessive
e.g. ultrasound
When taken into English, Latin nouns ending in –or usually retain their exact Latin form
(final letters -us/-um/-a interchangeable)
-or = the agent; he or that which does
e.g. flexor, vector, infusor
-io/-ura = action, or condition resulting from an action
ENG = –ion, -ure
e.g. purgation, tension, fixation, fissure, juncture, puncture
-men/-mentum = action, or condition resulting from an action
ENG –mentum usually = -ment
e.g. foramen, tegmen, stamen, nurtiment, sediment, segment
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