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CLA219H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Salmacis, Aposiopesis, Orgasm

Course Code
Regina Höschele
Study Guide

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CLA 219 WOMEN IN ANTIQUITY 09/11 – 10/09/12
Midterm Review
Sources for study of Women in Antiquity
- Archaeological / material evidence
- Epigraphy (inscriptions)
- Artifacts
- Literature (philosophical, historical, scientific, mythological, poetic, etc.)
- What we know/ learn is mediated by these evidences which had been provided by
- Historical periods:
Archaic – ca. 750-500 BC --- Homeric writing, poets, Sappho
Classical – ca. 500-323 BC --- ended with the death of Alexander
the Great
Hellenistic – ca. 323-31 BC --- ended with the Battle of Actium
Imperial – Rome as a political power (Greece became a province in
146 BC)
oRome --- founded in 753 BC, according to legends
Roman Republic , ca. 500 – mid-1st c. BC (monarchy overthrown in
509 BC, civils wars in 1st c. BC lead to the creation of the Republic)
Roman Empire ca. 30 BC – 3rd c. BC
Late Antiquity – 4th-6th c. AD
- The term “classic” means a great piece of work
oClassical = exemplary, the height of culture ~ but this is not true
- There are few public roles for women, all else is domestic
oA lot of misogyny is directed to women
oOften secluded, dominated by the men
- Men in charge of public roles – physical and military duties, political offices, etc.
The 12 Olympians

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CLA 219 Midterm Rev 2
- Aphrodite / Venus
oEpithets: Kypris, Kytheria
oBorn from Uranus (Hesiod) ~ from the genitals >> aphros = foam OR
daughter of Zeus and Dione (Homer)
oGoddess of Love
oWife of Hephaestus, mistress of Ares, mother of Eros
oMortal lovers: Anchises (son Aeneas), Adonis
Caesar claims descent from Venus because his family, the Julii,
were said to be descended from Aeneas and therefore divine
oCastration of Uranus – fresco by Giorgio Vasani
oHesiod’s Theogony 178-200 ~ birth of Aphrodite (H.G. Evelyn-White)
oAphrodite is also sometimes called Philommedes – love to smile OR Greek
for “penis”
oAphrodite Anadyomene = Aphrosite Rising
Anadyomene = rising out of
oAphrodite a popular subject of Renaissance paintings because it gives
artist the opportunity to create a naked form of the female body
oMyth: Aphrodite’s and Ares’ tryst and Hephaestus’ trap (Odyssey)
Showed that women are property
oAphrodite is more about Lust and Passion than Marital Fidelity
oMyth: Judgment of Paris (Iliad)
Rufinus’ poem about the Judgment of Paris was all about butts
- Artemis / Diana
oDaughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo
oVirgin goddess of Hunting
Chastity associated with hunting
oResided over crucial aspects of women’s life: transition from maidenhood
to womanhood, childbirth
oLater identified with Selene (Moon)

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CLA 219 Midterm Rev 3
oSymbols: bow and arrow, stag
oMyth: Death of Actaeon
oTemple at Ephesus (Asia Minor) with a cult statue of Artemis (one of the 7
Ancient Wonders)
Cult statue depicts the goddess having a chestful of breasts (or
- Demeter / Ceres
oDaughter of Kronos and Rhea, mother of Persephone
oGoddess of Harvest and Agriculture
oEpithet: Thesmophoros (Law-giver)
oSymbols: sheaves of wheat, cornucopia
- Persephone / Proserpina
oDaughter of Zeus and Demeter, spouse of Hades
oQueen of the Underworld
Spends half of the year in the Underworld, the other half in Mt.
oEpithet: Kore (Maiden)
oHomeric hymn to Demeter is about the Abduction / Rape of Persephone
Hymn = song of praise, typically addressed to deities, talk of their
attributes and their life
oIambe (old woman from palace) cheers up Demeter
Supposed inventor of the iambos (iambic poetry)
Poetry with certain content of “attack” (insulting, obscene)
o[In an alternate version, same figure but different name] Baubo cheers up
Demeter by raising skirt and exposing genitals
Baubo figurine – vagina with face (terracotta cultic statue) =
Magritte, Le viol painting
**Iambe and Baubo serve the function in different versions of the Rape of Persephone
- Athena / Minerva
oPallas Athene (means either “maiden” or “weapon-brandishing”)
oBorn from Zeus’ head (swallowed mother Metis to prevent a successor that
could overthrow him – because women in general tends to support the
younger generation in the battle for succession)
oBorn full-grown and in full armour
oVirgin goddess of wisdom, war, weaving and craftsmanship
oSymbols: owl, olive, helmet, armour
oEpithet: Glaukopis (grey- / owl-eyed)
oPatron deity of Athens
oProtectors of heroes (Perseus, Herakles, Odysseus, Jason)
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