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CLA219H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Lex Julia, Hieros Gamos, Wind Chime

Course Code
Regina Hoschele
Study Guide

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Battle of Actium: 31 BC Octavian (later named Augustus) vanquished Mark Antony
and Cleopatra; ended the Hellenistic Period and ushered in the Imperial period. The
Egyptian Ptolemy fell; the Roman Empire was divided and governed by monarchs
Hieros Gamos: refers to a sexual ritual that plays out a marriage between a god and
a goddess, especially when enacted in a symbolic ritual where human participants
represent the deities. In Greek mythology the classic instance is the wedding of Zeus
and Hera.
Hymn: invocation of a god; song of praise, addressed to a god, transmits some tale
connected to the god
Iambic poetry: named after Iambe; poetry whose content attacks, blames, mocks, is
obscene (e.g. Semonides on women; women compared to animals)
Invective: poem of attack
Misogyny: ‘misos’ – hatred, ‘gyne’ – women; hatred of women; refers to general
disdain for women in Greek society (e.g. Hesiod’s Works and Days; Pandora as first
woman responsible for all evils of the world)
Myth: legends belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods, heroes, the
nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own ritual practices.
They were a part of religion in ancient Greece.
Ab ovo: from the beginning of the story (reference to one of the eggs of Leda and
Zeus, disguised as a swan, from which Helen was born. Had Leda not lain the egg,
Helen would not have been born, so Paris could not have eloped with her, so there
would have been no Trojan War etc.); vs. in media res
Argonautica: Greek Hellenistic epic poem about Jason and the Argonauts and their
quest for the Golden Fleece; by Apollonius of Rhodes6
Barbarian: Someone who is not Greek
Comedy: obscene jokes, linked to Dionysius (god of wine, ecstasy, festivity), phallic
Encomium: mortal version of a hymn, praise for man
Didactic: poem meant to instruct or teach (e.g. Theogony and Works and Days)
Palinode: an ode in which the writer retracts a view or sentiment expressed in an
earlier poem (e.g. Stesichorus “The Case for Helen”)

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Epic: Stories of journeys of heroes / struggles; e.g. Odyssey and Iliad
Potiphar wife’s motif: Euripides’ Hippolytus play: Hippolytus refuses to worship
Aphrodite so she makes his stepmother Phaedra fall in love with him she tries to
seduce him and when he refuses she frames him for assault // Potiphar’s wife in the
Biblical story of Joseph
Tragedy: extension of ancient rites in honor of Dionysus. 3 Tragedians of ancient
Greece Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides E.g. Medea
Androgynous: combination of masculine and feminine characteristics
Apotropaic: wards off evil; attributed to man’s penis, a symbol of potency and
fertility, often seen in gardens or walls of homes (e.g. fresco of Priapus in Pompeii)
Discourse: institutionalized way of thinking as seen in Foucault’s History of
Sexuality (observed in Aeschines’ speech “Against Timarchus)
Erastes: Active, bearded lover in a pederastic relationship
Eromenos: passive, non-bearded, feminine beloved
Herm: sculpture of bust with male genitals; erected at cross-roads serving an
apotropaic functions as well as designating borders; Hipparchus set-up many along
roads with moral messages
Hermaphrodite: having male and female / ambiguous genitalia; named after
Hermaphroditus, son of Aphrodite and Hermes. He was a minor deity of bisexuality
and effeminacy; nymph Salmacis was in love with him they became one
Hetaera: chosen life of prostitution; courtesan; un-enslaved (ex-slaves from other
cities), unmarried woman; educated; influential; independent; would enter
relationships with males, exchange of exclusive gifts, participated in political life,
outlets for unmarried Greek men
Lex Iulia de adulteriis coercendis: Statute by Augustus about adulterers; law
punished adultery with banishment; guilty parties were sent to different islands,
part of their property was confiscated. Husbands could kill the partners under
certain circumstances and were required to divorce adulterous wives.
Pederasty: a (usually erotic) relationship between a young man and a pre-pubescent
boy outside his immediate family. The word pederasty derives from Greek word for
"love of boys"
Phallus: an erect penis, a penis-shaped object, or a mimetic image of an erect penis

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Porne: woman who sells body on continuous basis to different men; worked in
brothels; were slaves
Tintinnabulum: wind-chime with apotropaic function (e.g. Priapus’ wind-chime)
Archaic smile
Carpe Diem
Memento Mori
Second Sophistic
Vetula: Old woman
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