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CLA219H1 Study Guide - Athena, Eleusinian Mysteries, Divine Retribution

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Regina Höschele

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CLA 219 – Midterm I + II Review R. Höschele 09/11 – 11/06/12
- Achilles – character in Homer’s Iliad; the son of Peleus and Thetis, great (tragic) hero
of the Trojan War, killer of Hector and cousin of Patroclus; near-immortal hero whose
only weakness is his heel (Achilles’ heel ~ weakness)
- Adonis – beautiful boy, lover of Aphrodite, died tragically, honoured by Adonia
oBecame a god of beauty and desire; ever-youthful vegetation god
oSynonymous with “handsome youth”
-Agamemnon – character in Homer’s Iliad; brother of Menelaus, husband of
Clytemnestra, father of Elektra and Orestes, king of the Myceneans or Argos,
commander of the Greek forces in the Trojan War
-Aglaurus – (Aglaulus) one of the three daughter of Cecrops, killed herself when she
saw Erechthonius inside the basket with snakes, after Athena told them explicitly not
to look inside
-Alkibiades – (Alcibiades) Athenian statesman, general; part of the Alcmaeonidae;
student of Socrates, involved in the Sicilian expedition and the Hermokpidae scandal
(instigator; the dismemberment of the herms)
oInvolved with prostitutes – wife got tired of him, left him for her brother’s
house and tried to divorce him, but Alcibiades retrieves her and brings her
- Apollonius of Rhodes – wrote the Argonautica, epic about Jason and the Argonauts,
Medea and the Golden Fleece
-Aristophanes – wrote the Thesmoporiazusae about Euripides and the women
hounding him during the festival; Father of Comedy
-Asklepias – god of healing, son of Apollo, temple advocates incubation (i.e., dreaming
the treatment of an illness); symbol the snake-entwined staff
-Baubo – character in the Rape of Persephone myth, palace servant that cheered up
Demeter by flashing her genitals; alternate version of Iambe – represent obscene
songs (in iambic meter) sung to relieve emotional stress/tension at Eleusinian
-Boutes – (Butes) son of Pandion, king of Athens, brother of Erechtheus, the first to
inherit the priesthoods tied to the kingship, ancestor of the Etoubotadai, priests of
Athena Polias
oA priest of Poseidon and Athena, worshipped as a hero by the Athenians
-Cecrops – father of Herse, Aglaurus, and Pandrosus, the daughters that established
the underground ritual of the Arrhephoria, legendary first king of Athens
- Clytemnestra – adulterous wife of Agamemnon, mother of Orestes, mortal twin sister
of Helen, and sister of Castor and Pollux; deemed the bad wife in opposition to
-Clodius Pulcher – the defiler, instigator of the Bona Dea scandal – intended to seduce
one of the women during the sacred secret festival; rival of Cicero
-Dioscuri – Roman name for the twins Castor and Pollux (Polydeuces), one mortal, one
divine, protectors of the people; also known as the Gemini; associated with
horsemanship, patrons of sailors
-Erechtheus – mythical founder of the Athenians, born from the soil enriched by the
semen of Hephaestus wiped off from Athena’s thigh, making him the son of the virgin
goddess; archaic king of Athens; has a sanctuary, Erechtheion, dedicated to him on
the Acropolis
-Erigone – hung herself after seeing the dead body of her father, Icarius of Athens,
killed by his drunken shepherds (because Dionysius gave them wine for being
hospitable towards him) – Dionysus made her the constellation Virgo; honoured by
swinging children in the Anthesteria, symbolic of love and death; supposedly married
Dionysus before she died
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