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Dimitri Nakassis
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CLA230 Revision Midterm 2
Chapter 9
Descendants of Ion. Miletus 6th century Enlightenment travel to learn from other cultures
Not about how things worked but why took the gods out of the equation
Oligarchs had limited power because they did not claim divine power/origin
Little survives of their writing: we are left with who Aristotle mentioned: all three wanted to explain
where the world came from, they were natural philosophers
Thales: primary element was water
Anaximander: world hung in nothingness, primary source is the infinite. No boundries but had 4
forces fighting: hot, cold, wet, dry. He offered the first mechanical theory of the earth, and
space relations were extremely important to him.
Anaximenes: Refined Anaximander’s thought: the infinite was actually air, and the human was a
rare type of purified air
Other thinkers include Pythagoras from the island of Samos. He pushed the thinking in three new
direction: mathematics, mysticism and politics. He fled the city in which he was born. He believed that
the universe was the kosmos (ordered whole) and that the human soul was the Kosmos in miniature,
and that mathematics was the way to comprehend this order. Pythagoras saw two principles at work in
the kosmos: the Unlimited, which was shapeless and bad, and the Limiting, as when a musical string
limited by exact intervals produces ordered harmonies, which is good.
~500 BC there was Hectaetus: improved on Anaximander’s map of the world. He wrote two important
prose works. One was a systematic account of the peoples around the Mediterranean basin, combining
geography, ethnography, and politics. The second analyzed genealogies.
Hecataeus seems to have pioneered a new genre of inquiry into the causes of human events, but his
successor Herodotus’ account of the Persian invasions of Greece was the first systematic attempt to
explain human events in human terms. Herodotus was born around 484 B.C., as Archaic times ended,
and although he seems to have lived and worked in Athens, he hailed from HALICARNASSUS. Thales had
famously remarked that the world was full of gods. But like Thales and his successors, Herodotus
assumed that causes and effects nonetheless normally lay in the human realm, amenable to systematic
The Greek alphabet was initially used to take down epic verse by dictation. The possessors of this
technology were the male Greek agathoi, whose social life was based in the symposium, its drink and
song, and its political and sexual adventure. the agathoi began creating new kinds of poetic expression
in writing, unknown in the oral past. Greek lyric has often been taken to reflect the “rise of the
individual” or “the invention of personal emotions” because of the strong, even violent, feelings
expressed, but we must remember that such poems were never read in a room by a private person, but
rather experienced, usually at the symposium, rather as we experience popular music. The earliest and
most celebrated lyric poet was Archilochus, who lived in the seventh century B.C.
but the famous Sappho, who lived on the island of Lesbos around 600 B.C. seems to have written mostly
for weddings. This kind of poem, called an epithalamium, “the song sung outside the bedroom,”
uniquely allowed celebration of a respectable young woman’s sexual desirability.
The Near Eastern features, stiff posture, and Egyptian-like wig for hair characterize the daedalic (d -da-
lik) style, named after the legendary craftsman Daedalus, who built a labyrinth maze for King Minos in
which to imprison the Minotaur, only to have Minos imprison him and his son Icarus in. All the same, art
historians use daedalic to mean early Greek art, with primitive features. Such artistic conservatism
depended on the statues’ magical purpose as substitute bodies for the ka, or “vital essence,” of the
deceased in case the mummy was destroyed. Greek carvers borrowed Egyptian techniques to produce
new types of statue, which archaeologists call kouroi (“young men”; singular, kouros) and korai (“young
women”; singular, korê). The sculptor reached out to create in stone an idealized nakedGreek youth.
These temples required much wood and stone and were enormously expensive by greek standards, but
the communities that sponsored them took civic pride in their construction. By 600 B.C., distinct canons
of temple building had evolved, familiar to us today, called the Doric and Ionic orders after the two
principal Greek ethnic divisions (Figure 9.6). A third order, the Corinthian, with elaborate capitals of
acanthus leaves, was added later (Chapter 18, “Greek Culture in the Fourth Century B.C.”). Regardless of
what order a builder worked with, temples had three parts. At the top was the entablature
(“superimposed board”), consisting of a pitched, tiled roof, the front and back of the temple, the
triangular areas under the roof (the end gables), called pediments, often had sculpture. The second
architectural element was the columns, The third element was the temple’s base. The columns stood on
a stylobate (st -l -b t, “column-walk”), which stood on a series of progressively larger slabs forming steps,
and finally on a leveling course. The Doric and Ionic orders had only a loose connection to Dorians and
Ionians as ethnic groups.
Blahblahblah all the painting stuff
Ionia, 175 Miletus, 175 Ionian Enlightenment, 175 Thales, 176 Anaximander, 176 Anaximenes, 177
Pythagoras, 177 Herodotus, 179 historiê, 179 Archilochus, 181 daedalic style, 18 Naucratis, 184 kouros,
185 korê, 185 cella, 189 Doric order, 189 Ionic order, 189 pediments, 190 orientalizing phase, 191 Ripe
Corinthian, 192 Protoattic, 192 black-figure, 193 red-figure, 195
Chapter 11
In the 510s B.C., Persian troops crossed the Hellespont into main- land Europe, and, as we have seen,
Persia received Athens’ formal submission in 506 B.C.. In 490, Persia attacked Athens. At the same time,
the growing power of the Sicilian Greeks alarmed the nearby Phoenician city of Carthage in what is now
Tunisia. In east and west alike, tensions erupted in the fateful year of 480 B. C., when Persia and
Carthage both sent huge forces against the Greeks. The Greeks triumphed, but the effort of doing so
changed their world forever.
Assyria raiding their neighbours, they thought that their God Ashur was the best and required all
people to recognize it. Some people resisted fiercely; they took Babylon but it rebelled, so did the
kingdoms of Isreal and Judah. To pay off Assyrians the Phonecians increased trade (they’re in Lebanon)
and founded the colony of Carthridge
Assyria attacked Egypt in the 660s B.C., Egypt’s king hired formidable Greek hoplites as mercenaries, but
the Greeks never had to defend themselves directly against Assyria, because in 612 B.C. Babylonian
rebels and a warrior people from the mountains of western Iran called the Medes (m dz) burned to the
ground Assyria’s capital at Nineveh
Lydia drew Greece into an increasingly international world. In 560 B.C., a new king named Croesus (kr -
sus) assumed Lydia’s throne. It was him, not Gyges, whom Herodotus blamed for the subsequent clash
of east and west: Croesus took the coastal Greeks into his empire, taxed them, and installed client-
tyrants to rule over them. Herodotus says he planned further conquests:
Astyages now sent his grandson (renamed Cyrus) to live with his birth mother (Astyages’ daughter).
Cyrus grew up and became chief of the Persians. Harpagus, who had stayed on as Astyages’ top
assistant, burned for revenge and secretly urged Cyrus to revolt. When he did, Astyages foolishly sent
Harpagus against him at the head of his army. Harpagus promptly joined the rebels, and in 550 B.C.
Cyrus overthrew Astyages and took the empire, just as Astyages’ dreams had predicted long before.
Such outlandish tales are typical of Herodotus. To him, the story illustrated a fundamental difference
between the Greek poleis and the eastern empires. In a polis, no man stood so far above the other
citizens that he could treat them so brutally, while the eastern rulers Assyrian, Median, Lydian, or
Persiantook such differences in status for granted. Greek belief that no man could be truly free under
Persian rule was to have serious consequences when Persia attacked the Greeks. When Cyrus actually
came to power, he quickly overran the Medians’ large empire on the Iranian plateau and in
the replies of both oracles were the same: If he attacked the Persians, he would destroy a great empire.
He should also try to find out who were the most capable of the Greeks, and he should bring them into
an alliance. He then formed an alliance with Sparta and hired mercenaries.
Croesus was supposed to be burned alive. Croesus wept and called on Apollo to save himafter all,
Apollo’s oracle at Delphi had advised him about destroying a great empire. Suddenly rain fell from the
clear sky, extinguishing the fire. Such fairytales of the reversal of fortune dominate Herodotus’ stories
about the eastern empires. Croesus, miraculously saved, now became Cyrus’ closest adviser
Cyrus turned back to attack Babylon, the greatest city in the world at that time
The Assyrians had believed they had to subjugate others in order to make this world parallel Ashur’s
heavenly dominance. Cyrus followed a dualistic religion called Zoroastrianism (which still exists). Its early
form is hard to reconstruct, but the prophet Zoroaster seems to have claimed that the universe was a
battleground between the one uncreated creator Ahuramazda (“wise God”), the principle of light and
goodness, and Ahriman (“the liar”), the force of darkness. Ahuramazda had chosen Cyrus’ family, the